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  • tissues
  • The blood does not come into direct contact with the parenchymal cells and tissues in the body (except in case of an injury causing rupture of one or more blood vessels), but constituents of the blood first exit the microvascular exchange blood vessels to become interstitial fluid, which comes into contact with the parenchymal cells of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms caused by blood cancer cells infiltration into tissues: Lymphadenopathy Joint pain Swelling of the gums Hepatoslenomegaly Headache and vomiting: blood cancer infiltration into the wear performance of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together these results suggest that miR-155-5p is expressed in a number of tissues and cell types and, therefore, may play a critical role in a wide variety of biological processes, including hematopoiesis Although very few studies have investigated the expression levels of miR-155-3p, Landgraf et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature DCs have ability to present antigens in the lymphoid tissues and prime, activate and expand effector immune cells with unique functions and cytokine profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenotransplantation (xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign"), is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such cells, tissues or organs are called xenografts or xenotransplants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain procedures, some of which are being investigated in early clinical trials, aim to use cells or tissues from other species to treat life-threatening and debilitating illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, liver failure and Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • If vitrification can be perfected, it could allow for long-term storage of xenogenic cells, tissues and organs so that they would be more readily available for transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • Associated organs composed of lymphoid tissue are the sites of lymphocyte production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tonsils are lymphoid organs that are also associated with the digestive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peripheral lymphoid organs are the sites of lymphocyte activation by antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human immune cells are used to develop human lymphoid organs within these immunodeficient mice, and many different types of SCID mouse models have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune compromised mice have become of particular interest for studying the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), how it interacts with the host in human lymphoid organs, as well as how treatments work in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Clonal diversity of Ig and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia," Leukemia and Lymphoma , vol. 36, no. 3-4, pp. 213-224, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • At the same time, Notch signaling rapidly induces cell surface expression of the c-Kit receptor and transcription of the target genes Deltex1 and pre-Talpha concomitant with the activation of TCR Vbeta germline transcription and the regulatory genes GATA3 and Tcf1. (epfl.ch)
  • This cellular specificity correlated with the expression of the chemokine receptor CCR9 by a subset of MPP and common lymphoid progenitors but not hemopoietic stem cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that a prethymic signal through the cytokine receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 was required for the generation of CCR9-expressing early lymphoid progenitors, which were the most efficient progenitors of T cells within the MPP population. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cell type‐specific inhibitors of cytokine receptor signalling have been characterized (reviewed in Fujimoto and Naka, 2003 ), but little is known about how cytokine receptor gene expression is silenced at the epigenetic level. (embopress.org)
  • If the BCR can bind strongly to self-antigen, then the B cell undergoes one of four fates: clonal deletion, receptor editing, anergy, or ignorance (B cell ignores signal and continues development). (wikipedia.org)
  • B cell activation is enhanced through the activity of CD21, a surface receptor in complex with surface proteins CD19 and CD81 (all three are collectively known as the B cell coreceptor complex). (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a BCR binds a TD antigen, the antigen is taken up into the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis, degraded, and presented to T cells as peptide pieces in complex with MHC-II molecules on the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • T helper (TH) cells, typically follicular T helper (TFH) cells, that were activated with the same antigen recognize and bind these MHC-II-peptide complexes through their T cell receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor is commonly found on the cell surfaces of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Removal of MUC-1 exposes the oligosaccharide ligands of the uterine epithelium, thus allowing binding by the L-selectin receptor of the trophopblast cell, followed by embryo adhesion and invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (SCFR), also known as proto-oncogene c-Kit or tyrosine-protein kinase Kit or CD117, is a receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the KIT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD117 is a cytokine receptor expressed on the surface of hematopoietic stem cells as well as other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this receptor binds to stem cell factor (SCF) it forms a dimer that activates its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, that in turn phosphorylates and activates signal transduction molecules that propagate the signal in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their atomic investigation of mutant KIT receptor which emphasized on the EAL region provided a better insight into the understanding of the sunitinib resistance mechanism of the KIT receptor and could help to discover new therapeutics for KIT-based resistant tumor cells in GIST therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has implications for B and T cell receptor development, which is dependent upon such double-stranded breaks and subsequent repairs in order to rearrange V, D, J or V and J segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, it has been observed that SCID mice with an added mutation for interleukin-2 receptor common gamma chain (IL2Rγ) are better able to accept transplantation of human HSC and create human B and T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphopoiesis
  • Interestingly, regions of de novo DNA methylation in B cells overlap with an intronic antisense transcription unit that is differently regulated during lymphopoiesis. (embopress.org)
  • The word myelopoiesis has several senses in a way that parallels those of myeloid, and myelopoiesis in the narrower sense is the regulated formation specifically of myeloid leukocytes (myelocytes), allowing that sense of myelopoiesis to be contradistinguished from erythropoiesis and lymphopoiesis (even though all blood cells are normally produced in the marrow in adults). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathosis in lymphopoiesis leads to any of various lymphoproliferative disorders, such as the lymphomas and lymphoid leukemias. (wikipedia.org)
  • The partial loss of or loss of function of any white blood cell type is a serious health matter and lymphopoiesis is absolutely necessary for life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphopoiesis continues throughout life and so progenitor cells and their parent stem cells must always be present. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymph nodes
  • It is exemplified by the lymph nodes, and the lymphoid follicles in tonsils, Peyer's patches, spleen, adenoids, skin, etc. that are associated with the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • We first separated Linaege antigen − BM cells to CD45 + cells (Lin − CD45 + ) and CD45 − cells (Lin − CD45 − ) and transplanted each. (ahajournals.org)
  • Further, the maternal antibodies outcompete B cell receptors on the infant's B cells for binding to the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, B cells present antigen (they are also classified as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)) and secrete cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCRs allow the B cell to bind to a specific antigen, against which it will initiate an antibody response. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the SLO, B cell activation begins when the B cell binds to an antigen via its BCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a BCR binds an antigen tagged with a fragment of the C3 complement protein, CD21 binds the C3 fragment, co-ligates with the bound BCR, and signals are transduced through CD19 and CD81 to lower the activation threshold of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are most powerful antigen presenting cells for the induction of antigen specific T cell response and because of this function DCs are the crucial component of vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most critical step in vaccination is the effective presentation of cancer antigens to T cells and because of DCs are the most efficient antigen presenting cells, they are the promising option for improvement of therapeutic vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an active cellular immunotherapy, which involves obtaining antigen-presenting autologous dendritic cells from the patient following a leukapheresis procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are incubated ex vivo in the presence of a recombinant fusion protein PA2024 containing a prostate antigen, prostate acid phosphatase and GM-CSF, an immune-cell activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • In a healthy adult person, approximately 1011-1012 new blood cells are produced daily in order to maintain steady state levels in the peripheral circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemopoietic
  • Stromal OP9 cells ectopically expressing the Notch ligand Delta-like1 mimic the thymic environment by inducing hemopoietic stem cells to undergo in vitro T cell development. (epfl.ch)
  • The set comprising CLP cells and similar progenitors are themselves descendants of the pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell (pHSC) which is capable of generating all of the cell types of the complete blood cell system. (wikipedia.org)
  • immature
  • Furthermore, data showing that only cells with immature phenotypes are capable of engraftment and leukemia reconstitution in immunodeficient mice models support this [ 9 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While immature and during the T1 phase, B cells express BCR of class IgH, but BCR expression changes to the classes IgM and IgD after transition into the T2 phase and while mature up to activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Nuocytes have been shown to have a lymphoid origin and a developmental pathway that is dependent upon the transcription factor RORα and Notch signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • granulocytes
  • Myelocytes, which include granulocytes, megakaryocytes and macrophages and are derived from common myeloid progenitors, are involved in such diverse roles as innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and blood clotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence analysis of small RNA clone libraries comparing miRNA expression to all other organ systems examined established that miR-155-5p was one of five miRNAs (i.e. miR-142, miR-144, miR-150, miR-155, and miR-223) that was specific for hematopoietic cells including B-cells, T-cells, monocytes and granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Antigens that activate B cells with the help of T-cell are known as T cell-dependent (TD) antigens and include foreign proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cell response to these antigens takes multiple days, though antibodies generated have a higher affinity and are more functionally versatile than those generated from T cell-independent activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • SELL is a cell surface component that is a member of a family of adhesion/homing receptors that play important roles in lymphocyte-endothelial cell interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989). "Isolation and chromosomal localization of cDNAs encoding a novel human lymphocyte cell surface molecule, LAM-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice with SCIDs have lymphocyte progenitors, but these cells are unable to survive to maturity. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Moreover, neither B nor NK or dendritic lymphoid-cell populations developed recurrently from highly purified ALL-lymphoid progenitors, and their proliferation and cell cycle status revealed limited proliferative capacity. (hindawi.com)
  • P. Diamanti, C. V. Cox, J. P. Moppett, and A. Blair, "Parthenolide eliminates leukemia-initiating cell populations and improves survival in xenografts of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia," Blood , vol. 121, pp. 1384-1393, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Due to the lack of phenotypically detectable lymphoid cells, it was necessary to address the question of the lymphoid potential of the expanded populations under these conditions. (irsn.fr)
  • In this study, we checked the cardiomyogenic potential of BM cells in vivo , to identify the cell populations in BM that possess the capacity to give rise to CMs and clarify whether cardiomyogenic potential of BM-derived cells require cell fusion with host CMs. (ahajournals.org)
  • MPP type 2 cells appear to differ from the other populations in that they have a myeloid, rather than lymphoid, origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Furthermore, results gleaned from the study of human cells ex vivo may not be indicative of their functions in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In vitro T cell development of Pax5-/- progenitors strictly depends on Notch1 function and progresses through normal developmental stages by expressing T cell markers and rearranging TCRbeta, gamma, and delta loci in the correct temporal sequence. (epfl.ch)
  • Furthermore, blocking CCL25 results in reduced migration of progenitors into fetal thymic lobes in vitro ( 32 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • primitive
  • Interestingly, a number of quiescence-associated transcription factors were elevated, including the transcriptional repressor Gfi-1, which was highly expressed in primitive CD34 + cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Neither the precise origins of the leukemic cell, nor the biological behavior of the hematopoietic primitive cells in the leukemic setting are known. (hindawi.com)
  • A primitive hematopoietic cell is the target for the leukemic transformation in human Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia," Blood , vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 1007-1013, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • mice
  • Method and Result] BM cells of mice constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was intravenously injected into irradiated syngeneic newborn C57BL/6 mouse within 48hours after the birth. (ahajournals.org)
  • Of these progenitors, HSC and MPP are also known to circulate in the blood of adult mice ( 17 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Although CCR9 −/− mice have no obvious defect in T cell development or thymic cellularity ( 27 , 28 ), an early defect in T cell development has been revealed in competitive mixed BM chimeras ( 29 , 30 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • have found that non-obese diabetic (NOD) SCID IL2Rγ mice are even better suited as models for tissue transplants from non-self organisms due to their lower rate of rejection of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCID mice with human immune cells are able to respond to pathogens such as viruses and create antibodies against them, which has helped scientists better understand how the human immune system protects against pathogen infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some studies have suggested that after a period of time, human T cells in the immunocompromised mice become anergic, meaning that they no longer respond to stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenotransplantation of human tumor cells into immunocompromised mice is a research technique frequently used in pre-clinical oncology research. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic cells
  • Even though the function of miR-155-3p has been largely ignored, several studies now suggest that, in some cases (astrocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells), both miR-155-5p and -3p can be functionally matured from pre-mir-155. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it is a major growth factor stimulating the growth of dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • Moreover, the understanding of the mechanisms that damage the earliest steps of the lymphoid developmental program in ALL is incomplete, and the existence of specialized cancer stem cells is still a debate [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • maturation
  • In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, blasts at different stages of immunophenotypic maturation have stem cell properties," Cancer Cell , vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 47-58, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • We can used specific TAAs, tumor lysates,created DC-cancer cell fusions, electroporation/transfection of DCs with total cancer cell-mRNA or tumor derived exosomes (TDEs) by the stimulation.There is also possibility of aditonal co-stimulating with cytokine "cocktails" to assure strong maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • innate immune
  • The nuocyte is a cell of the innate immune system that plays an important role in type 2 immune responses that are induced in response to helminth worm infection or in conditions such as asthma and atopic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • melanoma
  • Activating mutations in this gene are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, testicular seminoma, mast cell disease, melanoma, acute myeloid leukemia, while inactivating mutations are associated with the genetic defect piebaldism. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast
  • In addition, mast cells, melanocytes in the skin, and interstitial cells of Cajal in the digestive tract express CD117. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • FANCA is ubiquitously expressed at low levels in all cells with subcellular localisation in primarily nucleus but also cytoplasm corresponding with its putative caretaker role in DNA damage-response pathways, and FA complex formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix- the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. (rahmacancercare.com)
  • In developing embryos, blood formation occurs in aggregates of blood cells in the yolk sac, called blood islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • From here, their development into B cells occurs in several stages (shown in image to the right), each marked by various gene expression patterns and immunoglobulin H chain and L chain gene loci arrangements, the latter due to B cells undergoing V(D)J recombination as they develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Publications] Ogawa M: 'Expression and function of c-kit in fetal hemopoietic progenitor cells:transtion from the early c-kit-independent to the late c-kit:dependent wave of hemopoiesis in the murine embryo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • C) Differential growth curves of SH2B3 wild-type and patient-derived SH2B3 mutant lymphoblastoid cells grown in 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) containing media. (nih.gov)
  • Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) survived grafting into the spinal cord of athymic nude rats with no signs of overgrowth and with a very similar profile to human fetal-derived NPCs. (celltherapynews.com)
  • macrophages
  • Although myeloid cell production does not seem to decline with age, macrophages become dysregulated as a consequence of environmental changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myelocytes, which include granulocytes, megakaryocytes and macrophages and are derived from common myeloid progenitors, are involved in such diverse roles as innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and blood clotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). (jci.org)
  • marginal zone
  • It tends to be negative in acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher expression levels of miRNA-223 are associated with extranodal marginal-zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the stomach and recurrent ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Our work studying exhausted CD8 T cells TEX during chronic viral infections has demonstrated that TEX lose effector functions, express multiple inhibitory receptors (e.g. (upenn.edu)
  • Coregulation of CD8+ T cell exhaustion by multiple inhibitory receptors during chronic viral infection. (upenn.edu)
  • Simultaneously, they upregulate cell-surface receptors that act as co-receptors in T-cell activation such as CD80 (B7.1), CD86 (B7.2), and CD40 greatly enhancing their ability to activate T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The occurrence of CD79A thus coincides with the evolution of B cell receptors with greater diversity generated by recombination of multiple V, D, and J elements in bony fish contrasting the single V, D and J elements found in shark. (wikipedia.org)
  • B1 cells express IgM in greater quantities than IgG and its receptors show polyspecificity, meaning that they have low affinities for many different antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the knowledge that natural killer cells are effectors of innate immunity, recent research has uncovered information on both activating and inhibitory NK cell receptors which play important functional roles, including self tolerance and the sustaining of NK cell activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cell receptors can also be differentiated based on function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural cytotoxicity receptors directly induce apoptosis after binding to Fas ligand that directly indicate infection of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MHC-dependent receptors (described above) use an alternate pathway to induce apoptosis in infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these receptors do not bind to their ligand, B cells do not receive the proper signals and cease to develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • Investigators induced dopaminergic (DA) neurons using scalable culture conditions on human laminin fragment, and the sorted CORIN + cells expressed the midbrain DA progenitor markers, FOXA2 and LMX1A. (celltherapynews.com)
  • The most common division of dendritic cells is "myeloid" vs. "plasmacytoid" (lymphoid): The markers BDCA-2, BDCA-3, and BDCA-4 can be used to discriminate among the types. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were named "natural killers" because of the initial notion that they do not require activation to kill cells that are missing "self" markers of MHC class 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • This role is especially important because harmful cells that are missing MHC I markers cannot be detected and destroyed by other immune cells, such as T lymphocyte cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • compartment
  • It should be further noted that changes in the lymphoid compartment is not solely responsible for the malfunctioning of the immune system in the elderly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the ratio ρ = L / M {\displaystyle \rho =L/M} of lymphoid (L) to myeloid (M) cells in blood as a quantitative marker, the stem cell compartment can be split into three categories of HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innate sensing mechanisms can rapidly mobilize B1 B cells regardless of specificity, highlighting the innate-like activity of this separate B cell compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukemia
  • Hematologic diseases in which it is positive include ALL, angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis (90%), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (variable), follicular center cells (70%), hairy cell leukemia (10%), and myeloma (some). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ikaros displays crucial functions in the hematopoietic system and its loss of function has been linked to the development of lymphoid leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, Ikaros has been found in recent years to be a major tumor suppressor involved in human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • reticular cells
  • The cortex is mainly made up of thymocytes, supported by a network of finely-branched epithelial reticular cells, which is continuous with a similar network in the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the medulla, the network of reticular cells is coarser than in the cortex, the lymphoid cells are relatively fewer in number, and there are concentric, nest-like bodies called Hassall's corpuscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive
  • Dendritic cells (DC) 3 are a heterogenous population of APCs that contribute to innate immunity and initiate adaptive immune responses to Ags associated with infection and inflammation ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • For discovering the central role of dendritic cells in the adaptive immune response, Steinman was awarded the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 2007 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells are critical to the adaptive immune system, where the body adapts specifically to foreign invaders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role NK cells play is analogous to that of cytotoxic T cells in the vertebrate adaptive immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of NK cells in both the innate and adaptive immune responses is becoming increasingly important in research using NK cell activity as a potential cancer therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoiesis
  • We have cloned genomic KL gene and 10kb upstream from the transcription initiation site was analyzed by CAT assay using hematopoiesis supporting stromal cell line ST2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Hematopoiesis is the process by which all mature blood cells are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • A decline in humoral immunity caused by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller immunoglobulin diversity and affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the presence of both the CD79a and CD79b ITAM tyrosines were required for normal T cell dependent antibody responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent functional studies indicate a further subdivision of labor assigning B1a cells as the producers of natural serum antibody (7). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, B1b cells appear to be the primary source of dynamic T cell independent (TI) antibody production and long-term protection after bacterial infection such as Borrelia hermsii and Streptococcus pneumoniae. (wikipedia.org)
  • thymic
  • Together with the age-related thymic involution, and the consequent age-related decrease of thymic output of new T cells, this situation leaves the body practically devoid of virgin T cells, which makes the body more prone to a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • The medulla is specialized to allow thymocytes to undergo additional rounds of negative selection to remove auto-reactive T cells from the mature repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Network analysis reveals centrally connected genes and pathways involved in CD8+ T cell exhaustion versus memory. (upenn.edu)
  • PDK1 deficiency in POMC-expressing cells reveals FOXO1-dependent and -independent pathways in control of energy homeostasis and stress response. (uni-koeln.de)
  • commonly
  • While the majority of miRNAs are located within the cell, some miRNAs, commonly known as circulating miRNAs or extracellular miRNAs, have also been found in extracellular environment, including various biological fluids and cell culture media. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Other features of the Fanconi anaemia cell phenotype also include abnormal cell cycle kinetics (prolonged G2 phase), hypersensitivity to oxygen, increased apoptosis and accelerated telomere shortening. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. (jove.com)
  • Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity. (uni-koeln.de)
  • When bound by its proper ligand, Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), it [tyrosine kinase]] becomes active in phosphorylating proteins that, among other functions, promote cell growth and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in human immortalized lymphoblasts and leukaemia cells, FA proteins are readily detectable by immunoprecipitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changes can often be tracked by monitoring the presence of proteins on the surface of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens that activate B cells with the help of T-cell are known as T cell-dependent (TD) antigens and include foreign proteins. (wikipedia.org)