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  • presence
  • Correlations were analyzed between nonsentinel LN status, LECP%, and other clinicopathologic variables (number of involved sentinel LNs, size of the primary tumor and LN metastasis, presence of lymphovascular invasion in the primary tumor, and of extracapsular growth in the sentinel LN metastasis). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The multivariate logistic regression model retained high LECP% (odds ratios = 4.2, P = 0.01) and the presence of extracapsular growth (odds ratios = 3.38, P = 0.04) as independently associated with the presence of nonsentinel LN metastases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • growth
  • Thirty seven out of 65 patients (56.9%) had at least one involved nonsentinel LN. Size of the sentinel LN metastasis ( P = 0.001), lymphovascular invasion ( P = 0.02), extracapsular growth ( P = 0.02), and LECP% ( P = 0.01) were correlated with a positive nonsentinel LN status. (aacrjournals.org)
  • immunohistochemistry
  • We further addressed the biological function of VEGF-D for induction of lymphatic metastasis in a nude mouse xenograft model using two human ductal pancreatic cancer cell lines with overexpression of VEGF-D. Compared to normal human pancreas, pancreatic cancer tissue showed overexpression of VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 in conjunction with a high lymphatic vascularization as determined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mice
  • In 90% of nude mice, lymph node metastasis was established by alloic transplantation of LS174T and LS174T-NEO, which expressed high levels of CD44. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In vivo, reconstitution of HAPLN1 in aged mice increased the number of LN metastases, but reduced visceral metastases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Indeed, most metastasis models do not use these cells, relying instead on ER− cell lines like MDA-231, MDA-435 ( 10 ) and similar cells that express putative aggressiveness markers and do metastasize in nude mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The closest structural and functional relative of VEGF-C is VEGF-D. However, at least in mice, VEGF-C is absolutely essential for the development of the lymphatic system, whereas VEGF-D appears to be not necessary at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • Based on cDNA microarray analysis together with in vivo experiments, 107 candidates of metastasis-related genes were extracted. (nii.ac.jp)
  • nodal
  • Initial nodal metastasis in PTC usually occurs in the paratracheal and pretracheal nodes in level VI of the central compartment of the ipsilateral neck and spreads to the lateral cervical lymph nodes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • proteins
  • The development of fluorescent proteins to genetically tag living cells has greatly increased the likelihood that metastases will be visualized ( 19 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The body resists metastasis by a variety of mechanisms through the actions of a class of proteins known as metastasis suppressors, of which about a dozen are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • Cell lines were divided into three groups (high, middle and low) according to the incidence of lymph node metastasis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The purpose of this study is to prospectively analyze the incidence of occult lateral neck metastasis (LNM) and to elucidate the factors that predict LNM in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with central neck metastasis (CNM) by performing prophylactic selective lateral neck dissection (SND). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • lymph nodes
  • Sampson Handley noted Halsted's observation of the existence of malignant metastasis to the chest wall and breast bone via the chain of internal mammary nodes under the sternum and employed an "extended" radical mastectomy that included the removal of the lymph nodes located there and the implantation of radium needles into the anterior intercostal spaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease has a tendency to develop local recurrences and metastasis thereafter to regional lymph nodes, lung, bone, brain, and other locations, including the scalp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lymphatics of the labia drain to the upper vulva and mons, then to both superficial and deep inguinal and femoral lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • In medicine, the Sister Mary Joseph nodule or more commonly node, also called Sister Mary Joseph sign, refers to a palpable nodule bulging into the umbilicus as a result of metastasis of a malignant cancer in the pelvis or abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • The closest structural and functional relative of VEGF-C is VEGF-D. However, at least in mice, VEGF-C is absolutely essential for the development of the lymphatic system, whereas VEGF-D appears to be not necessary at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastasize
  • Our case is a 17-year-old male operated for a right occipital intra-axial lesion with a diagnosis of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma which recurs 5 years later and metastasize vigorously through haematogenous and lymphatic routes. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • result
  • This process itself is called metastasis, and the result is a serious condition that is very difficult to treat. (blogger4zero.com)
  • Also indirectly VEGF-C can be responsible for hereditary lymphedema: The rare Hennekam syndrome can result from the inability of the mutated CCBE1 to assist the ADAMTS3 protease in activating VEGF-C. While a lack of VEGF-C results in lymphedema, too much VEGF-C is implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • The practice of sentinel lymph node mapping has changed the surgical approach in many cancer systems, sparing a formal lymph node dissection for patients with sentinel lymph node negative for tumor and directing a full node dissection for patients with sentinel lymph node positive for tumor metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • site
  • This process is predictable anatomically according to the primary site in the organ and the lymphatic channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • thought
  • The pectoralis muscles were removed not only because the chest wall was involved, but also because it was thought that removal of the transpectoral lymphatic pathways were necessary. (wikipedia.org)