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  • physiological
  • Modern techniques have recently made it possible to target nearly all cell types in the antennal lobe to directly monitor their physiological activity or to alter their expression of endogenous proteins or transgenes. (oxfordre.com)
  • afferent
  • Arnold G, Masson C, Budharugsa S (1985) Comparative study of the antennal lobes and their afferent pathway in the worker bee and the drone ( Apis mellifera ). (springer.com)
  • gene
  • Further, we characterize reporter lines labeling the mushroom bodies and reflecting the expression of the neuroblast marker gene Tc - asense , respectively. (springer.com)
  • neural
  • However, to fully elucidate the neural circuitry of complex behavior, it is crucial to understand brain interactions with the whole body, which can be achieved only by mapping the whole-body connectome. (jneurosci.org)
  • brains
  • Whole brains of mini, media and large workers were immunolabelled with anti-synapsin antibodies, and mushroom body volumes as well as densities and absolute numbers of MG were determined by confocal imaging and three-dimensional analyses. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • odor
  • We investigated its effect in the antennal lobe, the first olfactory center in the brain, using calcium imaging to record background activity and odor responses before and after octopamine application. (springer.com)
  • calcium
  • We achieved the first simultaneous recordings of conditioned sting extension responses and calcium imaging of antennal lobe activity, thus revealing on-line processing of olfactory information during conditioning trials. (frontiersin.org)
  • We discuss the absence of learning-induced changes in the antennal lobe of learners and the decrease in calcium responses found in non-learners. (frontiersin.org)
  • input
  • Here, we demonstrate robust changes in the synaptic architecture of the MB input region (calyces) following the consolidation of a stable, transcription-dependent, memory of a specific odorant. (jneurosci.org)
  • large
  • We also discuss the challenges encountered by scientists who endeavor to map these whole-body connectomes in large animals. (jneurosci.org)