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  • pups
  • In guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) mothers wean larger litters later than small ones, but it is unknown whether this difference depends on processes induced during pregnancy or is influenced post-natally by the number of pups present. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mothers of four-pup litters also weaned their pups 5 days later than those of two-pup litters. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The lines H4, H8, H12 and HI were selected from litters standardized to 4, 8 and 12 pups at day one in the first three lines and from unstandardized litter size in the Hl-line. (wcgalp.org)
  • In the lines HK, K and L litter size was standardized to 8 pups at day one. (wcgalp.org)
  • traits
  • The objective of this study was to investigate polymorphisms of BMPRIB (bone morphogenetic protein type IB receptor) gene and its effect on litter size traits in sheep. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Analysis of variance showed that the polymorphism of BMPRIB gene was associated with positive effect on litter size traits. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • EN] The reproductive traits of 276 rabbit does belonging to an intercross generation of two synthetic INRAlines, which differed by their genotypes at the k-casein locus being either AA or AB, were recorded at birth andat weaning for a total of 743 litters. (upv.es)
  • large
  • A lioness kept as a pet in Pakistan gave birth to five cubs, a rare large litter, and each cub is eating 20 pounds of meat every day. (newsmax.com)
  • We here tested with playback-experiments using pup separation calls whether mothers with cross-fostered large experimental litters (four-pup-litters) were more responsive to offspring calls and maintained responsiveness for longer than mothers with small experimental litters (two-pup-litters). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The primary objective of this study was to investigate seasonal variations in oestrus and litter size in a large assistance dog breeding colony in the UK in order to optimise colony management. (bmj.com)
  • Getting pigs to reliably produce large litters is of great economic importance in places like China, the United States and the European Union. (asbmb.org)
  • L-amino-acid oxidase, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2 and calmodulin were among the proteins notably expressed in semen that gave large litters. (asbmb.org)
  • heritability
  • In a line that had been selected for low litter size (L) and where realized heritability was zero from generations 20-40, selection was reversed and the selection criterion became the same as in the high lines H4, H8, H12 and HI. (wcgalp.org)
  • protein
  • SPP1 protein levels in normal sized foetuses were significantly higher than in the smallest litter mates for all the tissues. (bl.uk)
  • In both breeds, significant differences between sizes were found in some tissues, with similar expression patterns in respect to size, for both mRNA and protein in endometrial tissues when compared to contemporary LW. (bl.uk)
  • In placenta, the direction of the expression differed between breeds, with a higher expression of mRNA and protein in the normal-sized MS foetuses and in the smallest sized LW foetuses. (bl.uk)
  • The comparison of SPP1 expression between different foetal sizes and different breeds revealed associations between breed, foetal size, and SPP1 protein, factors implicated in PS and LS. (bl.uk)
  • We determined that l -amino acid oxidase, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (MDH2), cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1B, lysozyme-like protein 4, and calmodulin (CALM) were significantly and abundantly expressed in high-litter size spermatozoa. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • consideration
  • The authors' findings suggest that special consideration of the annual distribution of oestrus and litter size is unnecessary for the management of assistance dog breeding colonies similar to those in the UK. (bmj.com)
  • birth
  • After standardisation of the litter size at birth, thegenotype of the dam was found to have no effect on weight gain and the viability of the young between birthand weaning or on the litter weight at weaning. (upv.es)
  • randomly
  • To determine the effectiveness of vitamin A injections during breeding and various stages of gestation on subsequent litter size, 1375 sows were assigned randomly (125 sows per treatment) to 11 treatment groups. (purdue.edu)
  • season
  • There was no evidence of regular seasonal variations in oestrus or litter size by meteorological season or month. (bmj.com)
  • female
  • In this study, goat KDM6A mRNA expression profiles were determined, insertion/deletion (indel) variants in the gene identified, indel variants effect on KDM6A gene expression assessed, and their association with first-born litter size analyzed in 2326 healthy female Shaanbei white cashmere goats. (frontiersin.org)
  • days
  • 1). These data indicate that injection of vitamin A at weaning, breeding or various days throughout gestation was not effective in increasing litter size. (purdue.edu)
  • higher
  • The smallest LW-LR foetuses tended to have a higher level of SPP1 mRNA in endometrium tissue compared to the normal-sized foetuses. (bl.uk)
  • However, placenta expression was higher in the normal-sized foetuses compared to the smallest ones. (bl.uk)
  • methods
  • He says one challenge the pork industry faces is the reliance on " inefficient methods to evaluate semen quality that could directly affect litter size. (asbmb.org)
  • years
  • In order to improve the reproductive performance, it has been intensively selected to increase the litter size for about 10 years. (ajas.info)
  • However
  • However, at present there are conflicting data regarding seasonality in oestrus (and litter size) in domestic dogs. (bmj.com)
  • study
  • This retrospective study assessed the accuracy of gestational age and litter size predictions in 76 bitches using one of two techniques. (vetcontact.com)
  • species
  • Snag fall rates and log-decomposition are simulated using species-specific and tree-size-specific decay parameters derived from the literature, expert opinion, or field measurements. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • Beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks (with stoppers), and graduated cylinders of various sizes will be invaluable to your experiments. (wikihow.com)
  • Among the various materials that make up marine debris, lumps of petroleum waxes such as paraffin and microcrystalline wax, are regularly found on beaches worldwide, although not included in the current definition of marine litter. (frontiersin.org)
  • FOOD
  • Animals that have birth defects or weak genes (such as the runt of the litter) also die off, unable to compete over food with stronger, healthier animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • come
  • Autotrophs and heterotrophs come in all sizes, from microscopic to many tonnes - from cyanobacteria to giant redwoods, and from viruses and bdellovibrio to blue whales. (wikipedia.org)
  • dogs
  • The Pandikona shows wide variations in size as the local breeders never chain their dogs and are not given to selective breeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • force
  • Under normal circumstances, bjbead proudly ships worldwide with DHL within 2-4 business days Encountered with festivals, vacation or force majeure, the transportation period may be a litter longer. (bjbead.com)