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  • extracted from memb
  • The lactose carrier was extracted from membranes of Escherichia coli and transport activity reconstituted in proteoliposomes containing different phospholipids. (springer.com)
  • membrane
  • Two different assays f for carrier activity were utilized: counterflow and membrane potential-driven uptake. (springer.com)
  • On the other hand, proteoliposomes containing asolectin, phosphatilcholine or 25% cholesterol/75% phosphatidylcholine showed good counterflow activity but poor membrane potentialdriven uptake. (springer.com)
  • Apparently one function of the carrier molecule shows a broad tolerance for various phospholipids, while a second facet of the membrane protein activity requires very restricted lipid enviroment. (springer.com)
  • Mechanism of lactose transport in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles: Evidence for the involvement of histidine residue(s) in the response to the lac carrier to the proton electrochemical gradient. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, we have studied the effects of combined exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) and chemically induced hypoxia on membrane lipid profile and homeostasis. (plos.org)
  • Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clustering of peroxisome proliferation responses at transcript levels and FA desaturation against membrane FAs levels whose changes were explained by PFOSA and chemically induced hypoxia exposures. (plos.org)
  • In general, our data show that hypoxia may, singly or in combination with PFOSA produce deleterious health, physiological and developmental consequences through the alteration of membrane lipid profile in organisms. (plos.org)
  • Orange rectangles - membrane-impermeable anions (these arise from a variety of sources including proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmembrane proteins , also known as ion transporter or ion pump proteins, actively push ions across the membrane and establish concentration gradients across the membrane, and ion channels allow ions to move across the membrane down those concentration gradients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The histidine rich desaturases tend to be integral membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in insects, the desaturase is critical in the formation of ceramide, and for complex signalling molecules (pheremones), while in fungi, the function of the enzyme, and concentration of unsaturated lipids is regulated in response to function of growth temperature by controlling membrane fluidity in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most neurotransmitters are water-soluble and require transmembrane proteins to transport them across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic efficiency (i.e., the ratio between maximal velocity and Michaelis-Menten constant) of the AEA membrane transporter (AMT) is almost doubled compared with control cells, demonstrate that, among the proteins of the "endocannabinoid system," only CB1 and AMT critically depend on membrane cholesterol content, an observation that may have important implications for the role of CB1 in protecting nerve cells against (endo)cannabinoid-induced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to be active, steroid hormones must free themselves from their blood-solubilizing proteins and either bind to extracellular receptors, or passively cross the cell membrane and bind to nuclear receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study has found that these steroid-carrier complexes are bound by megalin, a membrane receptor, and are then taken into cells via endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When steroid hormones are entering membranes free energy barriers exist when the functional groups are entering the hydrophobic interior of membrane, but it is energetically favorable for the hydrophobic core of these hormones to enter lipid bilayers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The multidrug/oligosaccharidyl-lipid/polysaccharide (MOP) flippase superfamily (TC# 2.A.66) is a group of integral membrane protein families. (wikipedia.org)
  • These transporters may function together with auxiliary proteins that allow passage across just the cytoplasmic membrane or both membranes of the Gram-negative bacterial envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipopolysaccharide exporters may function specifically in the translocation of the lipid-linked O-antigen side chain precursor from the inner leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane to the outer leaflet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein members of the PST family are generally of 400-500 amino acyl residues in length and traverse the membrane as putative α-helical spanners twelve times. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-linked glycosylation in eukaryotic cells follows a conserved pathway in which a tetradecasaccharide substrate (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2) is initially assembled in the ER membrane as a dolichylpyrophosphate (Dol-PP)-linked intermediate before being transferred to an asparaginyl residue in a lumenal protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flow of auxin molecules through the neighboring cells is driven by carriers (type of membrane transport protein) in the cell-to-cell fashion (from one cell to other cell and then to the next one) and the direction of the flow is determined by the localization of the carriers on the plasma membrane in the concerned cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence the export of auxin from the cell requires an active component in plasma membrane - i.e. some membrane transport protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the PGP auxin efflux carriers are evenly distributed, the PIN proteins are most often maintaining polar (i.e. asymmetric) localisation on the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the cells located in the vasculature (at the center) of the root all show PIN1 proteins on their basal membrane only (i.e. on their lower side). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has a cluster of genes, called fox genes, that encode membrane proteins that are similar to cytochrome c oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Employing stringent statistical analysis no lipid metabolism genes were detected as being significantly altered in liver when comparing families with high and low n-3 LC-PUFA flesh contents. (stir.ac.uk)
  • This gene is highly expressed in organs involved in lipid metabolism, and may play a role in Zellweger syndrome, in which cells are deficient in peroxisomes and have impaired bile acid synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are highly regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which led to their involvement in lipid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthetic
  • This will illustrate the elaborate mechanisms that keep unwanted lipoxygenation at arm's length and also show that the enzymes such as glutathione- S -transferases, epoxide hydrolases, and carrier proteins that are commonly thought of as biosynthetic also belong to families that are generally considered to play a role in detoxification. (jci.org)
  • ENR is a highly conserved enzyme of lipid biosynthetic pathways in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacterial species and is absent in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isoprenoids are a large group of compounds that serve as biosynthetic precursors for lipids and hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In general, significant alterations of genes involved in lipid homeostasis were predominantly observed after 48 h exposure. (plos.org)
  • Though its whole genome has not been sequenced, the coding sequences of some genes have been sequenced: Genes were found in this organism that encode the biotin carboxylase, carboxyl transferase and biotin carboxyl carrier protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino acid residue sequence of all three proteins that are coded for by these genes have also been sequenced using microsequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Materials and methods Reagents All PPMOs were synthesized and purified at Sarepta Therapeutics (Corvallis, Oregon, USA) as described previously.17 The PPMO nucleobase and amino acid sequences are shown in Table S1 (available as Supplementary data at JAC Online). (deepdyve.com)
  • These proteins are 190-240 amino acyl residues in length and possess six hydrophobic regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is the body's primary catabolic pathway and is essential in breaking down the building blocks of the cell such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • We have previously shown that in Nicotiana sylvestris cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) mutants where the mtDNA lacks the nad7 gene coding for a subunit of respiratory Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.5.3 ), glycine (Gly) oxidation was lower than in the wild type and insensitive to rotenone, suggesting Complex I dysfunction. (plantphysiol.org)
  • coenzyme
  • Gene expression analysis showed that biological responses related to peroxisome proliferation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and acyl coenzyme A (ACOX)) and FA desaturation (Δ 5 - and Δ 6 -desaturases: FAD5 and FAD6, respectively) and elongation (FAE) were elevated slightly by single exposure (i.e. either PFOSA, CoCl 2 or DFO exposure alone), and these responses were potentiated in combined exposure conditions. (plos.org)
  • It catalyzes the hydrolysis of long chain fatty acyl thioesters of acyl carrier protein or coenzyme A to form free fatty acid and the respective thiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • New research shows that coenzyme A can be synthesized through alternate routes when intracellular coenzyme A level are reduced and the de novo pathway is impaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since coenzyme A is, in chemical terms, a thiol, it can react with carboxylic acids to form thioesters, thus functioning as an acyl group carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coenzyme A is also the source of the phosphopantetheine group that is added as a prosthetic group to proteins such as acyl carrier protein and formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The folding pattern for this structure closely resembles that found in some tandem-repeat mammalian lipid-binding and bactericidal permeability-increasing proteins, with a similar organisation of the major cavity and a disulfide bond linking the long helix and the beta-sheet. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • The actin-bound DBP complex was identified with Western blot.CONCLUSIONS: The lipid-bound DBP fraction may be of greater importance than initially thought. (ugent.be)
  • archaea
  • The lipids protect the archaea from the acidic environments in which they live while still maintaining stability at high temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • Second, the potential cellular oxidative damage that is produced as a by-product of the use of oxygen and lipid substrates is examined. (jci.org)
  • vitro
  • Using in vivo and in vitro models of AML, we show that bone marrow adipocytes from the tumor microenvironment support the survival and proliferation of malignant cells from patients with AML. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Experiments show that triclocarban activates constitutive androstane receptor and estrogen receptor alpha both in vivo and in vitro and might have the potential to alter normal physiological homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • These forms of hormones are lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steroid hormones are generally carried in the blood, bound to specific carrier proteins such as sex hormone-binding globulin or corticosteroid-binding globulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some steroid antagonists: Androgen: cyproterone acetate Progestins: mifepristone, gestrinone Steroid hormones are transported through the blood by being bound to carrier proteins-serum proteins that bind them and increase the hormones' solubility in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most studies say that hormones can only affect cells when they are not bound by serum proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • We have previously reported a correlation between serum DBP and lipid parameters in a cystic fibrosis. (ugent.be)
  • bind
  • FABPs such as FABP1, FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7 have been shown to bind endocannabinoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prenylation is a common type of covalent post-translational modification at C-terminal CaaX motifs that allows proteins to localize to membranes or bind to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acids
  • We show that AML blasts alter metabolic processes in adipocytes to induce phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and consequently activate lipolysis, which then enables the transfer of fatty acids from adipocytes to AML blasts. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Evidence suggests that the SCPx protein is a peroxisome-associated thiolase that is involved in the oxidation of branched chain fatty acids, while the SCP2 protein is thought to be an intracellular lipid transfer protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbohydrate
  • In addition, dolichols can be adducted to proteins as a posttranslational modification, a process in which branched carbohydrate trees are formed on a dolichol moiety and then transferred to an assembly of proteins to form a large glycoprotein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • steroid
  • One possible pathway is that once inside the cell these complexes are taken to the lysosome, where the carrier protein is degraded and the steroid hormone is released into the cytoplasm of the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cholesterol
  • The Insertion and Transport of Anandamide in Synthetic Lipid Membranes Are Both Cholesterol-Dependent" [Translated title]. (wikipedia.org)
  • During aging, the human brain shows a progressive increase in levels of dolichol, a reduction in levels of ubiquinone, but relatively unchanged concentrations of cholesterol and dolichyl phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • auxin
  • The mechanism below describes the process in which auxin is trapped in the cell by the so-called acid trap and how it can then leave the cell only by activity of specific carriers, which control the directionality of the flow from cells and generally the direction of auxin transport through the whole plant body. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the PIN proteins generate a directional flow of auxin at the tissue and organ scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • See also "Uneven distribution of auxin" and "Organization of the plant" in the main Auxin article Auxin it-self plays a central role in PIN protein polarity establishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulation of PIN localisation by auxin creates a feedback loop where PIN proteins control the directionality of auxin fluxes, and auxin in turn controls PIN proteins localisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • This family of enzymes is found only in the plastids of higher plant cells, unlike other desaturases such as acyl-lipid desaturases and acyl-CoA desaturases. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • An influence of activators of known plant uncoupling proteins on oxygen consumption of winter wheat shoots during cold stress. (nih.gov)
  • tissues
  • The results obtained showed that cold stress treatment caused about 20 % increasing of dienic conjugates formation in winter wheat shoots tissues (Fig. 2). (nih.gov)
  • interaction
  • This duality is typified by signaling cascade that (a) prevents the activation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in resting cells and (b) results in the formation and release of leukotrienes (LTs), which requires the sequential activation and interaction of at least eight different proteins. (jci.org)
  • human
  • This animation shows the process the human body goes through when exposed to allergens. (unl.edu)
  • Dolichols are the major lipid component (14% by mass) of human substantia nigra (SN) neuromelanin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein may be part of a fatty acid synthase complex that is more like the type II prokaryotic and plastid complexes rather than the type I human cytosolic complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • This animation shows how plasmids become recombinant and are inserted into bacteria cells. (unl.edu)
  • Each Gram-positive bacterial PST system functions in conjunction with a homologous MPA1 + C pair of proteins equivalent to an MPA1-C proteins of Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • A common deletion-allele in the promoter region of NFKB1 results in lower protein levels of the NF-κB p50 subunit. (dtu.dk)
  • ConclusionsThe NFKB1 promoter variant, previously shown to cause partial depletion of NF-κB p50, was associated with a higher risk of CHD in three independent prospective studies of generally healthy Caucasians. (dtu.dk)
  • The transcript initiated from the proximal promoter encodes the longer SCPx protein, and the transcript initiated from the distal promoter encodes the shorter SCP2 protein, with the 2 proteins sharing a common C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • This showed that only CSP 310 (cold shock protein with molecular weight 310 kD) caused a significant increase of non-phosphorylative respiration. (nih.gov)
  • known
  • Gel permeation chromatography revealed a bimodal DBP distribution with a lipid-bound fraction besides the known free fraction. (ugent.be)
  • Dolichols play a role in the co-translational modification of proteins known as N-glycosylation in the form of dolichol phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1.22
  • There was no evidence of an allele-dosage effect, and in a dominant model the RR among del-allele carriers was 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07-1.39). (dtu.dk)
  • correlation
  • Studies have been done to show that, while there is not direct correlation between palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase and diabetes, streptozotocin-induced diabetes significantly decreased rat liver palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Proteoliposomes composed of E. coli lipid or of 50% phosphatidylethanolamine−50% phosphatidylcholine showed very high transport activity with both assays. (springer.com)
  • The discrepancy between the two types of transport activity in the latter group of three lipids is not due to leakiness to protons, size of proteoliposomes, or carrier protein content per proteoliposome. (springer.com)
  • It was found that among CSP 310-like proteins only CSP 310 had prooxidant activity. (nih.gov)
  • At the same time, Elymus CSP 310-like proteins have antioxidant activity. (nih.gov)
  • The C-domain has been shown to possess tyrosine protein kinase activity, so it may function in a regulatory capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that in rat's that are fed high fat diets, palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase activity in the liver increased. (wikipedia.org)