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  • proportions
  • Specifically, liposomes containing various molecular weight PEG-lipids at a variety of molar proportions were analyzed for in vivo clearance, aggregation state (size exclusion chromatography, quasi-elastic light scattering, cryo-transmission and freeze fracture electron microscopy) as well as in vitro and in vivo protein binding. (diva-portal.org)
  • Stimulation of rat lymphocytes with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of both neutral lipids and phospholipids (a decrease in the proportions of stearic, linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in the proportion of oleic acid). (ox.ac.uk)
  • interactions
  • Lipid-lowering drugs are not always effective, and few data address interactions between antiretroviral drugs and lipid-lowering agents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is believed that PEG-lipids mediate steric stabilization, ultimately reducing surface-surface interactions including the aggregation of liposomes and/or adsorption of plasma proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • These studies suggest that PEG-lipids reduce the in vivo clearance of cholesterol-free liposomal formulations primarily by inhibition of surface interactions, particularly liposome-liposome aggregation. (diva-portal.org)
  • cellular
  • Lipidomics is defined as the global analysis of all lipid molecular species of a system, their cellular and extracellular functions, interactions, and their dynamic changes that occur in health and disease. (ucsd-lipidmaps.org)
  • In view of the importance of lipids to biological and pathophysiological processes, detailed knowledge of the composition and concentration of lipid metabolites is necessary to fully comprehend and integrate metabolic networks at the cellular and systemic level. (ucsd-lipidmaps.org)
  • Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The paper describes not only this new strategy, but also its application to the shortest known synthesis, just 14 steps, of hydroxyphthioceranic acid, a key component of the cell wall lipid of the virulent mycobacterium tuberculosis. (innovations-report.com)
  • This requires the synthesis of the complex lipid which is composed of a disaccharide sugar core along with the complex chiral lipid, hydroxyphthioceranic acid. (innovations-report.com)
  • The phenolic lipid synthesis by type III polyketide synthases is essential for cyst formation in Azotobacter vinelandii. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of lipid droplets from the endoplasmic reticulum begins with the synthesis of the neutral lipids to be transported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neither DGAT1 nor DGAT2 is singularly essential for TAG synthesis or droplet formation, though mammalian cells lacking both cannot form lipid droplets and have severely stunted TAG synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-adipocytes, lipid storage, lipid droplet synthesis and lipid droplet growth can be induced by various stimuli including growth factors, long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (including oleic acid and arachidonic acid), oxidative stress and inflammatory stimuli such bacterial lipopolysaccharides, various microbial pathogens, platelet-activating factor, eicosanoids, and cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • microdomains
  • However, ceramide can possibly interact with other lipids to form bigger regions called microdomains which restrict its flip-flopping abilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • These microdomains were attributed to the physical properties and organization of lipid mixtures by Stier & Sackmann and Israelachvili et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid microdomains are formed when lipids undergo lateral phase separations yielding stable coexisting lamellar domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The question of whether such lipid microdomains observed in model lipid systems also exist in biomembranes had motivated considerable research efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Lipids show immense structural diversity that is mirrored by enormous variations in their physiological functions. (ucsd-lipidmaps.org)
  • 2005) Structural basis for lipid‐mediated interactions between mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier monomers. (els.net)
  • Historically lipids were thought to merely serve a structural role. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structural phase of the aggregation is influenced by the ratio of lipids present, temperature, hydration, pressure and ionic strength (and type). (wikipedia.org)
  • different lipid
  • Often, the methods suggest regions with different lipid fluidity, as would be expected of coexisting gel and liquid crystalline phases within the biomembrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • droplets
  • Intramyocellular lipids are fats stored in droplets in muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laughlen first described lipid pneumonia in 1925 with infants that inhaled oil droplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid droplets are found in all eukaryotic organisms and store a large portion of lipids in mammalian adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-adipocytes, lipid droplets are known to play a role in protection from lipotoxicity by storage of fatty acids in the form of neutral triacylglycerol, which consists of three fatty acids bound to glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, lipid droplets are known to be exploited by pathogens such as the hepatitis C virus, the dengue virus and chlamydia trachomatis among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid droplets vary greatly in size, ranging from 20-40 nm to 100 um. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid droplets have also been observed to be created by the fission of existing lipid droplets, though this is thought to be less common than de novo formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin resistance
  • However, an increase in muscle insulin resistance, caused by obesity, diabetes mellitus type 2, and metabolic syndrome, will result in an excess accumulation of intramyocellular lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other expert opinions and researchers argue the exact opposite: that accumulation of intramyocellular lipids would, in fact, be the cause of the insulin resistance that leads to type II diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These lipid intermediates can impair insulin signaling, which is referred to as lipid-induced insulin resistance and lipotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Lipid panels are commonly ordered as part of a physical exam, along with other panels such as the complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic panel (BMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • aqueous
  • It is also possible that an outer monolayer of lipid coats the surface of the collection of tubes to protect the hydrophobic surface from interaction with the aqueous phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tight packing of the lipid head groups reduces their contact with the aqueous phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycerol
  • In an organic chemistry general sense, an ether lipid implies an ether bridge between an alkyl group (a lipid) and an unspecified alkyl or aryl group, not necessarily glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Lipids are at the centre of membrane fusion events essential for intracellular transport, endocytosis and viral infection of cells by enveloped viruses. (els.net)
  • Some lipids are second messengers in intracellular signalling systems. (els.net)
  • Differential Impact of Intracellular Carboxyl Terminal Domains on Lipid Raft Localization of the Murine Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • benzene
  • Lipids are a group of substances of diverse structures that share the common trait of being soluble in solvents such as ether or benzene. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These lipids belong to a heterogeneous class of predominantly nonpolar compounds, mostly insoluble in water, but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents such as chloroform and benzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • 2007) Structures and physiological roles of 13 integral lipids of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase. (els.net)
  • intravenous
  • Many medical experts who oppose the technique have pointed out the slimy discharge how the body deals with any excess of intestinal and intravenous lipids, and it is a sign of high risk of artery damage and poor water absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid emulsion or fat emulsion refers to an emulsion of lipid for human intravenous use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid emulsions are effective in treating experimental models of severe cardiotoxicity from intravenous overdose of local anaesthetic drugs such as bupivacaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Propofol is dissolved in a lipid emulsion for intravenous use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intravenous lipid emulsions have been used experimentally since at least the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • essential
  • Although humans and other mammals use various biosynthetic pathways both to break down and to synthesize lipids, some essential lipids can't be made this way and must be obtained from the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, Plant Lipids is one of the producers of spice extracts, essential oils and natural food colours in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • These animals do not survive past embryonic day 8, indicating that the removal of lipid hydroperoxides is essential for mammalian life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intralipid and other balanced lipid emulsions provide essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA), an omega-6 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • ester
  • A saponifiable lipid is one with an ester functional group, that can be hydrolyzed under basic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • raft
  • The extraction would take advantage of lipid raft resistance to non-ionic detergents, such as Triton X-100 or Brij-98 at low temperatures (e.g., 4 °C). When such a detergent is added to cells, the fluid membrane will dissolve while the lipid rafts may remain intact and could be extracted. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydration
  • Stratum corneum provides skin hydration 1 and, in particular, lipids play a significant role against evaporation holding water. (americanskin.org)
  • polar
  • In archaea, ether lipids are the major polar lipids in the cell envelope and their abundance is one of the major characteristics that separate this group of prokaryotes from the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipoid
  • The terms lipoid, lipin, lipide and lipid have been used with varied meanings from author to author. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid pneumonia or lipoid pneumonia is a specific form of lung inflammation (pneumonia) that develops when lipids enter the bronchial tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • Lipid domains are not readily isolated and examined as unique species, in contrast to the examples of lateral heterogeneity. (wikipedia.org)
  • ether
  • Accordingly, peroxisomal defects often lead to impairment of ether-lipid production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differences between the catabolism of ether glycerophospholipids by specific phospholipases enzymes might be involved in the generation of lipid second messenger systems such as prostaglandins and arachidonic acid that are important in signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Liquichek Lipids Control is a human serum based product that provides the laboratory with two distinct analyte levels for lipids analysis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In recent years, development of immunochemical detection of HNE-histidine adducts opened more advanced methodological possibilities for qualitative and quantitative detection of lipid peroxidation in various human and animal tissues[full citation needed] as well as in body fluids, including human serum and plasma samples. (wikipedia.org)