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  • ligands
  • Thousands of proteins containing at least one START domain have been determined in invertebrates, bacteria and plants to form a larger superfamily, variously known as START, Bet v1-like or SRPBCC (START/RHOalphaC/PITP/Bet v1/CoxG/CalC) domain proteins, all of which bind hydrophobic ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoproteins also serve as enzyme cofactors, receptor ligands, and lipid transfer carriers that regulate the metabolism of lipoproteins and their uptake in tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lipid transport, apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes and ligands for cell-surface receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are enzyme coenzymes (C-II for lipoprotein lipase and A-I for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) Lipid transport proteins Ligands for interaction with lipoprotein receptors in tissues ( apoB100 and apoE for LDL-receptors, apoA-I for HDL receptors) There are two major types of apolipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also may involve the formation or dissociation of protein quaternary structures or oligomeric complexes, and specific binding of ions, ligands, or regulatory lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCP2
  • The transcript initiated from the proximal promoter encodes the longer SCPx protein, and the transcript initiated from the distal promoter encodes the shorter SCP2 protein, with the 2 proteins sharing a common C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Like in eukaryotes, stepwise O-glycosylation occurs on diverse bacterial proteins including flagellins, adhesins, autotransporters and lipoproteins, with O-glycosylation chain extension often coupled with secretory mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Subunit of the oligosaccharyl transferase (OST) complex that catalyzes the initial transfer of a defined glycan (Glc 3 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 in eukaryotes) from the lipid carrier dolichol-pyrophosphate to an asparagine residue within an Asn-X-Ser/Thr consensus motif in nascent polypeptide chains, the first step in protein N-glycosylation. (uniprot.org)
  • In eukaryotes, these redox reactions are carried out by a series of protein complexes within the inner membrane of the cell's mitochondria, whereas, in prokaryotes, these proteins are located in the cells' intermembrane space. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, five main protein complexes are involved, whereas in prokaryotes many different enzymes are present, using a variety of electron donors and acceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain-containi
  • Following the discovery of StAR, 15 START-domain-containing proteins (termed STARD1 through STARD15) were subsequently identified in vertebrates as well as other that are related. (wikipedia.org)
  • START domain-containing proteins in the human are divided into five subfamilies. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • Most importantly, the interior of the protein encompasses a 26 × 12 × 11-Angstrom hydrophobic tunnel that is apparently large enough to bind a single cholesterol molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three-dimensional structure of the LDL receptor-binding domain of apoE indicates that the protein forms an unusually elongated four-helix bundle that may be stabilised by a tightly packed hydrophobic core that includes leucine zipper-type interactions and by numerous salt bridges on the mostly charged surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycosylation
  • Protein glycosylation is an important posttranslational modification that occurs in all domains of life. (asm.org)
  • Protein glycosylation is a common posttranslational modification in bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Protein glycosylation has been described for both gram-negative and -positive bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Two different mechanisms for protein glycosylation can be distinguished by the mode in which the glycans are transferred to proteins. (asm.org)
  • Examples of pathways using this mechanism are protein O glycosylation in the Golgi apparatus in eukaryotic cells ( 28 ) and flagellin O glycosylation in several bacterial species ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the number and diversity of prokaryotic proteins shown to carry N- and/or O-glycans, with protein glycosylation now considered as fundamental to the biology of these organisms as it is in eukaryotic systems. (hindawi.com)
  • Protein glycosylation is a phenomenon shared by all domains of life. (hindawi.com)
  • Until recently it was widely believed that N-glycosylation of proteins is a eukaryotic phenomenon. (hindawi.com)
  • May be involved in N-glycosylation of APP (amyloid-beta precursor protein). (uniprot.org)
  • This protein is involved in the pathway protein glycosylation, which is part of Protein modification. (uniprot.org)
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway protein glycosylation and in Protein modification . (uniprot.org)
  • Dolichols play a role in the co-translational modification of proteins known as N-glycosylation in the form of dolichol phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increase in the sugar carrier dolichyl phosphate may reflect an increased rate of glycosylation in the diseased brain, and the increase in the endogenous anti-oxidant ubiquinone an attempt to protect the brain from oxidative stress, for instance, induced by lipid peroxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • coenzyme
  • Since coenzyme A is, in chemical terms, a thiol, it can react with carboxylic acids to form thioesters, thus functioning as an acyl group carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • liposomes
  • The study of membrane proteins (MPs) remains a major challenge in protein biochemistry mainly because of problems of protein aggregation and thermal instability in nonnative preparations of MPs in detergents, or native-like but insoluble preparations in liposomes. (rupress.org)
  • However, it is not known whether MPs incorporated in these lipid nanoparticles retain the range of key functional properties, as established with other lipid preparations like liposomes and planar lipid bilayers, which are generally used for single-molecule measurements of the movement of ions and molecules through ion channels and transporters. (rupress.org)
  • Lipofection generally uses a positively charged (cationic) lipid (cationic liposomes or mixtures) to form an aggregate with the negatively charged (anionic) genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Escherichia
  • The affinity purification was used to separate hexahistidine-tagged (his-tagged) enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) from Escherichia coli (E. coli). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • bilayers
  • We also evaluated the transfer of KcsA from the NABBs to lipid bilayers using single-channel electrophysiology and found that the functional properties of the channel remained intact. (rupress.org)
  • We investigated whether ion channels could be transferred from NABBs, which are planar, small bilayers made with POPC and zebrafish apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), to BLMs comprising of POPE/POPG (PE/PG) lipids. (rupress.org)
  • Zou and McHaourab, 2010 ), there have not been any reports to confirm whether the NABB-embedded proteins can be safely transferred to other bilayers-a result that could extend the use of these particles further, as targeted delivery vehicles for MPs. (rupress.org)
  • complexes
  • This facilitates the assembly of multi-protein complexes by increasing the probability of any appropriate protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thylakoid membrane contains some integral membrane protein complexes that catalyze the light reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four major protein complexes in the thylakoid membrane: Photosystem II (PSII), Cytochrome b6f complex, Photosystem I (PSI), and ATP synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The net-reaction of all light-dependent reactions in oxygenic photosynthesis is: 2H 2O + 2NADP+ + 3ADP + 3Pi → O 2 + 2NADPH + 3ATP The two photosystems are protein complexes that absorb photons and are able to use this energy to create an electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • They use special proteins, called light-harvesting complexes, to absorb the photons with very high effectiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • VIPP1 appears to be required for basic thylakoid membrane formation, but not for the assembly of protein complexes of the thylakoid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Glycans are often used to decorate proteins at the bacterial surface or components of appendages, such as flagella and pili ( 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Although in most cases, the precise functions of the glycans attached to bacterial proteins have not been determined, glycoproteins may play roles in adhesion, stabilization of the proteins against proteolysis, and evasion of the host immune response ( 38 ). (asm.org)
  • acceptor
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, to be specific, those transferring phosphorus-containing groups (phosphotransferases) with an alcohol group as acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Ligand binding by the START domain in multidomain proteins can also regulate the activities of the other domains, such as the RhoGAP domain, the homeodomain and the thioesterase domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • It may also refer to other methods and cell types, although other terms are often preferred: "transformation" is typically used to describe non-viral DNA transfer in bacteria and non-animal eukaryotic cells, including plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • covalently
  • Nevertheless, it was as long ago as 1976 that Mescher and Strominger reported that the S-layer protein from an archaeal prokaryote, Halobacterium salinarum , contained glycans covalently linked to asparagine residues [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • mitochondrial
  • A pseudouridine synthase module is essential for mitochondrial protein synthesis and cell viability. (abcam.com)
  • The purification, cloning, and expression of a novel luteinizing hormone-induced mitochondrial protein in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotic
  • The best understood prokaryotic glycoproteins are S-layers, pilins, and flagellins plus a selection of cell surface and secreted proteins which are known to be involved in adhesion and/or biofilm formation. (hindawi.com)