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  • electrostatic
  • Whatever the mechanism of calcium-induced fusion, the initial interaction is clearly electrostatic, since zwitterionic lipids are not susceptible to this effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • Fatty acid chains are found in two major components of membrane lipids: phospholipids and sphingolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • These processes include glycolysis, purine salvage, beta oxidation of fatty acids, and ether lipid synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes, which use free fatty acids as substrates, deposit all newly made phospholipids into the cytosolic half of the bilayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphatidates Phosphatidates are lipids in which the first two carbon atoms of the glycerol are fatty acid esters, and the 3 is a phosphate ester. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Bilayers are particularly impermeable to ions, which allows cells to regulate salt concentrations and pH by transporting ions across their membranes using proteins called ion pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical measurements are the most straightforward way to characterize one of the more important functions of a bilayer, namely its ability to segregate and prevent the flow of ions in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under this theory, calcium ions bind more strongly to charged lipids, but less strongly to water. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • A. van Oudenaarden and S. G. Boxer, "Brownian Ratchets: Molecular Separations in Lipid Bilayers Supported on Patterned Arrays," Science, Vol. 285, No. 5430, 1999, pp. 1046-1048. (scirp.org)
  • This molecular dynamics simulation of a dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer in excess water demonstrates the extreme thermal motion of fluid lipid bilayers. (uci.edu)
  • Moreover, as the result of molecular engineering inspired by biology, tethered bilayers are increasingly able to mimic fundamental properties of natural cell membranes, including fluidity, electrical sealing and hosting transmembrane proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • fluid
  • T his page describes the structure fluid lipid bilayer membranes determined by means of X-ray and neutron diffraction methods developed in our laboratory. (uci.edu)
  • It also describes recent results from the use of these methods for determining the disposition of helical peptides in fluid bilayers. (uci.edu)
  • Unfortunately, the high thermal disorder of fluid bilayers precludes atomic-resolution three-dimensional crystallographic images. (uci.edu)
  • The assembly can be controlled to give a densely packed single layer of RNA polyhedrons at the fluid lipid bilayer surface. (chalmers.se)
  • The reason for this is that the lipids in a fluid bilayer rearrange easily so, unlike a bulk material where the resistance to expansion comes from intermolecular bonds, the resistance to expansion in a bilayer is a result of the extra hydrophobic area exposed to water upon pulling the lipids apart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Saffman-Delbrück model describes a lipid membrane as a thin layer of viscous fluid, surrounded by a less viscous bulk liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This picture was originally proposed to determine the diffusion coefficient of membrane proteins, but has also been used to describe the dynamics of fluid domains within lipid membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Fusion is involved in many cellular processes, particularly in eukaryotes since the eukaryotic cell is extensively sub-divided by lipid bilayer membranes. (primidi.com)
  • Even the entry of pathogens can be governed by fusion, as many bilayer-coated viruses have dedicated fusion proteins to gain entry into the host cell. (primidi.com)
  • b) contacting said cell with said plasmid-lipid particle for a period of time sufficient to introduce said plasmid into said cell. (google.com)
  • Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. (rsc.org)
  • Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. (rsc.org)
  • Additionally, there is evidence for pattern formation in cell membranes due to the presence of various lipids. (aps.org)
  • Because bilayers define the boundaries of the cell and its compartments, these membrane proteins are involved in many intra- and inter-cellular signaling processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a typical mammalian cell (diameter ~10 micrometers) were magnified to the size of a watermelon (~1 ft/30 cm), the lipid bilayer making up the plasma membrane would be about as thick as a piece of office paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the bilayer, the sugar groups of glycolipids are exposed at the cell surface, where they can form hydrogen bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is unique about intramembrane proteases is that their active sites are buried in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, and they cleave other transmembrane proteins within their transmembrane domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curvature
  • Small angle neutron diffraction from flat lipid bilayers that are hydrated through water vapor has been employed to eliminate possible artefacts of the membrane curvature and the alcohol's membrane-water partitioning. (mdpi.com)
  • For an ideal bilayer the intrinsic curvature is zero, so this expression is somewhat simplified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lateral Mobility
  • M. B. Forstner, C. K. Yee, A. N. Parikh and J. T. Groves, "Lipid Lateral Mobility and Membrane Phase Structure Modulation by Protein Binding," Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 128, No. 47, 2006, pp. 15221-15227. (scirp.org)
  • vitro
  • Plasmid-lipid particles which are useful for transfection of cells in vitro or in vivo are described. (google.com)
  • molecule
  • To some extent, the addition of the dye molecule always changes the system, and in some cases it can be difficult to say whether the observed effect is due to the lipids, the dye or, most commonly, some combination of the two. (wikipedia.org)
  • diffusion coefficients
  • This potential complication has been given an argument against the use of one of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to determine bilayer diffusion coefficients. (wikipedia.org)
  • diffuse
  • Finally, as this point defect grows, the components of the two bilayers mix and diffuse away from the site of contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although phospholipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane, their polar head groups cannot pass easily through the hydrophobic center of the bilayer, limiting their diffusion in this dimension. (wikipedia.org)