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  • proportions
  • Specifically, liposomes containing various molecular weight PEG-lipids at a variety of molar proportions were analyzed for in vivo clearance, aggregation state (size exclusion chromatography, quasi-elastic light scattering, cryo-transmission and freeze fracture electron microscopy) as well as in vitro and in vivo protein binding. (diva-portal.org)
  • Stimulation of rat lymphocytes with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of both neutral lipids and phospholipids (a decrease in the proportions of stearic, linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in the proportion of oleic acid). (ox.ac.uk)
  • interactions
  • Lipid-lowering drugs are not always effective, and few data address interactions between antiretroviral drugs and lipid-lowering agents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is believed that PEG-lipids mediate steric stabilization, ultimately reducing surface-surface interactions including the aggregation of liposomes and/or adsorption of plasma proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • These studies suggest that PEG-lipids reduce the in vivo clearance of cholesterol-free liposomal formulations primarily by inhibition of surface interactions, particularly liposome-liposome aggregation. (diva-portal.org)
  • metabolism
  • Contributed to by top researchers in the field, Lipid Signaling Protocols is an essential resource for both experienced and novice researchers who desire a better understanding of the application of physical methodologies in the context of lipid signaling and lipid metabolism in cell biology. (springer.com)
  • The elevation of plasma lipids that occurs in obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome causes dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism through multiple mechanisms. (asbmb.org)
  • Biochemical and molecular characterization of this enzyme from plants confirmed that it hydrolyzes NAEs, which supports the hypothesis that NAE lipid mediators and their metabolism by FAAH facilitate plant growth regulation (5), interaction with phytohormone signaling (6) and responses of plants to pathogens (7). (asbmb.org)
  • Crawford (2010) in his chapter Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human brain evolution reported, with regard to the language of lipids, that the importance of the increased complexity of these lipids was brought about by aerobic metabolism, whereby the simple language of prokaryotes, with only a few words, was developed into a vocabulary of over 1,000 words of eukaryote cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another possible function of the plasmalogen ether lipids is as antioxidants, as protective effects against oxidative stress have been demonstrated in cell culture and these lipids might therefore play a role in serum lipoprotein metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since lipids are fats, lipid metabolism is often considered the digestion and absorption process of dietary fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid metabolism often begins with hydrolysis, which occurs when a chemical breaks down as a reaction to coming in contact with water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid metabolism does exist in plants, though the processes differ in some ways when compared to animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digestion is the first step to lipid metabolism, and is the process of breaking the triglycerides down into smaller monoglyceride units with the help of lipase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second step in lipid metabolism is the absorption of fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since lipids (fats) are hydrophobic, hydrolysis in lipid metabolism occurs in the cytoplasm which ends up creating glycerol and fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid Metabolism Disorders are illnesses where trouble occurs in breaking down or synthesizing fats (or fat-like substances). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gaucher's Disease (Type I, Type II, and Type III), Neimann-Pick Disease, Tay-Sachs Disease, and Fabry's Disease are all diseases where those afflicted can have a disorder of their body's lipid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarer diseases concerning a disorder of the lipid metabolism are Sitosterolemia, Wolman's Disease, Refsum's Disease, and Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of lipid droplets outside of lipid and cholesterol storage has recently begun to be elucidated and includes a close association to inflammatory responses through the synthesis and metabolism of eicosanoids and to metabolic disorders such as obesity, cancer, and atherosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Lipidomics is defined as the global analysis of all lipid molecular species of a system, their cellular and extracellular functions, interactions, and their dynamic changes that occur in health and disease. (ucsd-lipidmaps.org)
  • In view of the importance of lipids to biological and pathophysiological processes, detailed knowledge of the composition and concentration of lipid metabolites is necessary to fully comprehend and integrate metabolic networks at the cellular and systemic level. (ucsd-lipidmaps.org)
  • As an extensionof this notion, we propose here a `Lipid World'scenario as an early evolutionary step in theemergence of cellular life on Earth. (springer.com)
  • To prevent increased cellular FA concentrations, essentially all cells "detoxify" FA by their esterification and storage as triacylglycerol in lipid droplets. (asbmb.org)
  • Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • While NAEs may not necessarily act in plants as ligands for G-protein coupled receptors like some do in animal systems, the evolutionary conservation of the occurrence of these lipid mediators and their metabolic machinery is striking (4). (asbmb.org)
  • In some cases, the hydrated region can extend much further, for instance in lipids with a large protein or long sugar chain grafted to the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic ether lipid analogs have cytostatic and cytotoxic properties, probably by disrupting membrane structure and acting as inhibitors of enzymes within signal transmission pathways, such as protein kinase C and phospholipase C. A toxic ether lipid analogue miltefosine has recently been introduced as an oral treatment for the tropical disease leishmaniasis, which is caused by leishmania, a protozoal parasite with a particularly high ether lipid content in its membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasma membranes of cells contain combinations of glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organised in glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid droplets also serve as platforms for protein binding and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Penicillin-binding protein 4 exchanges d-amino acids into Lipid II (and Lipid I), acting as a transpeptidase in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic
  • Lipid droplets are found in all eukaryotic organisms and store a large portion of lipids in mammalian adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid A structure and effects on eukaryotic cells have been determined and examined, among others, by the groups of Otto Westphal, Chris Galanos, Ernst T. Rietschel and Hajime Takahashi starting already in the 1960s (Gmeiner, Luederitz, Westphal. (wikipedia.org)
  • fats
  • Euro Fed Lipid is a federation of 13 scientific associations concerned with Lipids, Fats and Oils. (eurofedlipid.org)
  • For a century, chemists regarded "fats" as only simple lipids made of fatty acids and glycerol (glycerides), but new forms were described later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid , any of a diverse group of organic compounds including fats, oils, hormones, and certain components of membranes that are grouped together because they do not interact appreciably with water. (britannica.com)
  • Lipid therapy, fat therapy, or therapeutic lipovenous injections is a controversial medical technique that entails the injection and expulsion of fats and lipids, which proponents claim can improve cognitive and memory function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of lipid digestion and absorption, however, occurs once the fats reach the small intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Lipids show immense structural diversity that is mirrored by enormous variations in their physiological functions. (ucsd-lipidmaps.org)
  • Historically lipids were thought to merely serve a structural role. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structural phase of the aggregation is influenced by the ratio of lipids present, temperature, hydration, pressure and ionic strength (and type). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the discovery and mechanism of assembly of pili in gram positive bacteria Lipid II has been implicated as a crucial structural molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, defining and understanding how even the smallest structural differences between the very similar lipid A species may affect the activation of the immune response may provide the mechanism for the fine tuning of the latter and new insights to immunomodulatory processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • bioactive
  • Future studies will need to address the question of whether the stereospecificity of ATGL supports the generation of bioactive 1,2-sn-DG and whether lipid droplet-derived DG can be translocated to the plasma membrane for PKC activation. (asbmb.org)
  • FFA provide cells with a rich source of energy, but when their concentrations exceed the cell's capacity for use or storage, they induce apoptosis, insulin resistance and other dysfunctions collectively referred to as "lipotoxicity"(1) .This occurs through initiating stress responses, regulating transcription and promoting production of bioactive lipids. (asbmb.org)
  • 2. Hannun, Y. A., and Obeid, L. M. (2008) Principles of bioactive lipid signaling: lessons from sphingolipids . (asbmb.org)
  • The end products of lipid peroxidation are reactive aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), the second one being known also as "second messenger of free radicals" and major bioactive marker of lipid peroxidation, due to its numerous biological activities resembling activities of reactive oxygen species. (wikipedia.org)
  • aqueous
  • the amphiphilic nature of some lipids allows them to form structures such as vesicles , multilamellar/ unilamellar liposomes , or membranes in an aqueous environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also possible that an outer monolayer of lipid coats the surface of the collection of tubes to protect the hydrophobic surface from interaction with the aqueous phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tight packing of the lipid head groups reduces their contact with the aqueous phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • signaling molecule
  • Ether lipids can also act directly in cell signaling, as the platelet-activating factor is an ether lipid signaling molecule that is involved in leukocyte function in the mammalian immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • analogs
  • Caged functional groups (1b) can allow lipid analogs to become activated in response to an external stimulus, such as photo-activation. (asbmb.org)
  • In addition, live-cell fluorescence-imaging studies using analogs of phosphatidic acid (7) and phosphatidylcholine (8) have been performed through derivatization of alkyne-tagged lipid analogs (1h) via click chemistry. (asbmb.org)
  • Consequently, lipid A analogs like eritoran can act as TLR4 antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • sphingolipids
  • Also, lipid rafts are enriched in sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin, which is typically elevated by 50% compared to the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should be noted that cholesterol has the ability to pack in between the lipids in rafts, serving as a molecular spacer and filling any voids between associated sphingolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • cholesterol
  • These cells are embedded into lipid layers constituted by cholesterol, fatty acids and ceramides. (americanskin.org)
  • https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/healthy_heart/know_your_risks/calculating-your-cholesterol Lipid Profile: At a glance at Labtestsonline.org Total Cholesterol - What Are Total Cholesterol Levels? (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipid hypothesis is a medical theory postulating a link between blood cholesterol levels and occurrence of heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disorder is sometimes called cholesterol pneumonia in cases where that lipid is a factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • Lipid II biosynthesis is functional and essential even in organisms without a cell wall like Chlamydia and Wolbachia. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been hypothesized that maintaining lipid II biosynthesis reflects its role in prokaryotic cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • amphiphilic
  • Inparticular, the documented chemical rate enhancementswithin lipid assemblies suggest that energy-dependentsynthetic reactions could lead to the growth andincreased abundance of certain amphiphilic assemblies.We further propose that selective processes might acton such assemblies, as suggested by our computersimulations of mutual catalysis among amphiphiles. (springer.com)
  • Alkylcatechols Alkylphenols (nonylphenol, cardanol) Alkylresorcinols Anacardic acids Due to their strong amphiphilic character, the phenolic lipids can incorporate into erythrocytes and liposomal membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • microdomains
  • However, ceramide can possibly interact with other lipids to form bigger regions called microdomains which restrict its flip-flopping abilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • These microdomains were attributed to the physical properties and organization of lipid mixtures by Stier & Sackmann and Israelachvili et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid microdomains are formed when lipids undergo lateral phase separations yielding stable coexisting lamellar domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The question of whether such lipid microdomains observed in model lipid systems also exist in biomembranes had motivated considerable research efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Researchers have found that lipids have a much more diverse and widespread biological role in the body in terms of intracellular signalling or local hormonal regulation etc. (news-medical.net)
  • Such activation allows investigators to probe the spatial and temporal regulation of lipid-mediated biological processes. (asbmb.org)
  • The systemic effects of ATGL deficiency in tissues with relatively low FA oxidation rates suggest that lipase-generated products and intermediates participate in the regulation of lipid and energy homeostasis. (asbmb.org)
  • These lipids have been shown to have potent biological activities in the plant and animal kingdoms, but much of what is known about them pertains to their regulation of animal physiology and behavior. (asbmb.org)
  • droplets
  • Localization of ATGL on lipid droplets of cos-7 cells. (asbmb.org)
  • Additionally, specific vesicle transport systems (such as Arf1-COP1) also regulate the access of ATGL to lipid droplets by mechanisms that are understood insufficiently (8, 9). (asbmb.org)
  • Laughlen first described lipid pneumonia in 1925 with infants that inhaled oil droplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-adipocytes, lipid droplets are known to play a role in protection from lipotoxicity by storage of fatty acids in the form of neutral triacylglycerol, which consists of three fatty acids bound to glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, lipid droplets are known to be exploited by pathogens such as the hepatitis C virus, the dengue virus and chlamydia trachomatis among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid droplets vary greatly in size, ranging from 20-40 nm to 100 um. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the exact mechanism of formation of lipid droplets is still unknown, it is proposed that they bud off the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum as TAGs are collected between the two layers of its phospholipid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid droplets have also been observed to be created by the fission of existing lipid droplets, though this is thought to be less common than de novo formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymers
  • Globules of lipid polymers also produce a significant shear strain on capillaries, causing the skin to pale and the tongue to swell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymers of lipid II form a linear glycan chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutral lipid
  • The relevance for human physiology was established when mutations in ATGL and CGI-58 were found to be causative for two variants of a rare, autosomal hereditary disease called "neutral lipid storage disease" (6, 7). (asbmb.org)
  • alcohols
  • A simple lipid is a fatty acid ester of different alcohols and carries no other substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ether lipid may also refer to alkylglycerols, such as chimyl, batyl, and selachyl alcohols, with a ether-bound lipid on position sn-1, and the other two positions on the glycerol backbone unoccupied. (wikipedia.org)
  • insoluble in water
  • These lipids belong to a heterogeneous class of predominantly nonpolar compounds, mostly insoluble in water, but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents such as chloroform and benzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sphingolipid
  • Alternatively, this sphingosine-derived lipid (sphingolipid) can be synthesized from scratch (de novo) by the enzymes serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase in organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and possibly, in the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and the perinuclear membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • To offset the elevated sphingolipid levels, phosphatidylcholine levels are decreased which results in similar choline-containing lipid levels between the rafts and the surrounding plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Lipid panels are commonly ordered as part of a physical exam, along with other panels such as the complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic panel (BMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • intravenous
  • Many medical experts who oppose the technique have pointed out the slimy discharge how the body deals with any excess of intestinal and intravenous lipids, and it is a sign of high risk of artery damage and poor water absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid emulsion or fat emulsion refers to an emulsion of lipid for human intravenous use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid emulsions are effective in treating experimental models of severe cardiotoxicity from intravenous overdose of local anaesthetic drugs such as bupivacaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Propofol is dissolved in a lipid emulsion for intravenous use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intravenous lipid emulsions have been used experimentally since at least the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • This book was stimulated by the enthusiasm shown by attendees at the meetings in Saxon River, VT, sponsored by the Federation ofAmerican Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), on the subject of the intestinal processing of lipids. (springer.com)
  • Synthetic methods for generating complex lipids have come to maturation over the past several years, efforts that have facilitated numerous advances in lipid biology, including the identification of novel roles for phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates, glycophosphatidylinositol anchors, lipid A and glycosphingolipids. (asbmb.org)
  • In combination with lipid-probe strategies, bioorthogonal labeling has enabled recent forays into lipid biology. (asbmb.org)
  • Lipid Peroxides in Biology and Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • ester
  • A saponifiable lipid is one with an ester functional group, that can be hydrolyzed under basic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • composition
  • One key difference between lipid rafts and the plasma membranes from which they are derived is lipid composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Because of their composition and detergent resistance, lipid rafts are also called detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched complexes (GEMs) or DIGs or Detergent Resistant Membranes (DRMs). (wikipedia.org)
  • raft
  • The extraction would take advantage of lipid raft resistance to non-ionic detergents, such as Triton X-100 or Brij-98 at low temperatures (e.g., 4 °C). When such a detergent is added to cells, the fluid membrane will dissolve while the lipid rafts may remain intact and could be extracted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential Impact of Intracellular Carboxyl Terminal Domains on Lipid Raft Localization of the Murine Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • aggregates
  • In lipid polymorphism, if the packing ratio[clarification needed] of lipids is greater or less than one, lipid membranes can form two separate hexagonal phases, or nonlamellar phases, in which long, tubular aggregates form according to the environment in which the lipid is introduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of low amounts of water, lipids that would normally form micelles will form larger aggregates in the form of micellar tubules in order to satisfy the requirements of the hydrophobic effect. (wikipedia.org)