Loading...
  • cellulose
  • The brown rots evolved later from a white rot ancestry and, because they circumvent the lignin and go straight for the hemicellulose and cellulose, they are considered more efficient and is probably why they have been able to dominate boreal forests in more recent times. (redorbit.com)
  • The analyses of the 48.2-million nucleotide genome of S. lacrymans not only allowed the team to compare the gene families involved in the mechanisms by which brown rot break down cellulose and white rot fungi break down both cellulose and lignin, but also how these processes differ within each category. (redorbit.com)
  • The brown rot fungi have somehow circumvented that step to more efficiently get at the cellulose instead of blasting lignin, and it has evolved multiple times in different white rot lineages. (redorbit.com)
  • White-rot fungi simultaneously degrade the three major components of the plant cell wall: lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast to white-rot fungi, brown-rot fungi are able to circumvent the lignin barrier, removing the hemicellulose and cellulose with only minor modification to the lignin. (pnas.org)
  • Although cellulose degradation in insect guts is well documented ( 7 , 8 ), the fate of lignin has not clearly been demonstrated ( 9 , 10 ), and it is widely accepted that insect gut systems do not have the capacity to degrade lignin ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is also an excellent fuel , since lignin yields more energy when burned than cellulose . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Lignin-based fibers were produced by electrospinning aqueous dispersions of lignin, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). (usda.gov)
  • Lignin positions second just to cellulose as the most abundant common item on earth. (ukessays.com)
  • Research on lignin has been done for over a century, beginning with the perceptions of Anselme Payen in 1838, which depicted the en-crusting materials which encompassed the cellulose in the woody cell wall (Pearl, 1964). (ukessays.com)
  • Lignin and cellulose cooperate to give a structural capacity in plants closely resembling that of epoxy sap and glass strands in a fiberglass boat. (ukessays.com)
  • The fibrous segments, cellulose or glass filaments, are the essential burden bearing components while the framework, lignin or epoxy pitch, gives firmness and inflexibility. (ukessays.com)
  • This substance is referred to as a complex natural polymer known as lignin and it is considered to be the second largest renewable carbon source on the planet following cellulose. (azocleantech.com)
  • Transgenic down-regulation of major lignin genes led to reduced lignin content, increased dry matter degradability, and improved accessibility of cellulases for cellulose degradation. (springer.com)
  • Interactions among lignin, cellulose, and nitrogen drive litter chemistry-decay relationships. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Litter decay rates often correlate with the initial ratios of lignin:nitrogen (N) or lignin:cellulose in litter. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cellulose could be described as the "brick" of the cell wall, while pectin, hemicellulose and lignin function like mortar, cementing everything together. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Lignin is vital for plant survival, but its structure impedes cellulose conversion. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The altered lignin broke down more readily than conventional lignin under mild alkaline conditions, demonstrating the potential for this modification to facilitate cellulose use. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Further research showed that incorporating other molecules such as feruloyl and caffeoylquinic acid into lignin could also enhance cellulose utilization. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • alkali lignin
  • A great deal of work has been directed at the separation of alkali lignin and lignosulphonate degradation products from black liquors, and the reaction of these with aldehydes for the formation of phenol formaldehyde type resins and adhesives. (google.com)
  • Hexamethylene tetramine derivatives of alkali lignins are formed by reacting, at a temperature between 70° C. and 180° C., 0.17 to 2.0 moles of a hexamethylene tetramine forming solution with 1 mole of an alkali lignin solubilized in an alkaline solution. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. Derivatives of lignin obtained by reacting in an alkaline solution an alkali lignin with from 0.17 to 2.0 moles of hexamethylene tetramine per mole of lignin at a temperature between 70° and 180° C., said derivative dried to form products having large surface areas. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The derivatives of claim 1 wherein said alkali lignin is a demethylated lignin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The process of producing large surface area lignin derivatives which comprises, reacting in an aqueous medium an alkali lignin with from 0.17 to 2.0 moles of hexamethylene tetramine per mole of lignin at a temperature between 70° and 180° C., mixing said product with varsol and acetic acid, and drying said mixture. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • More particularly, this invention relates to hexamethylene tetramine derivatives of alkali lignin that are useful as stabilizers and emulsifiers and are easily dried to lignins having large surface area. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • According to the present invention it is possible to obtain lignin derivatives, which are capable of obtaining high surface areas upon proper drying, by reacting in an aqueous alkaline solution an alkali lignin with hexamethylene tetramine. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The lignins employed in this invention are of the type known as "alkali lignin" obtained from the black liquor formed during the manufacture of pulp by the sulfate or "kraft" process. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It is not necessary to start with an alkali lignin per se as modified alkali lignins, such as the demethylated lignins made according to U.S. Pat. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • synthesis
  • This is important for evaluating the utility of the materials and indirectly confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method of synthesis of chitin/lignin products. (hindawi.com)
  • Goffner D. Lignins and lignocellulosics: a better control of synthesis for new and improved uses. (springer.com)
  • This chapter presents a comprehensive overview on the synthesis of lignin-based phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resin and its characteristics for using it as wood adhesives. (springer.com)
  • Lignin has a phenolic structure with high hydrophobicity that makes it as a promising bioreplacement of phenol in the synthesis of PF resins. (springer.com)
  • To improve the reactivity of lignin, various chemical modifications such as methylolation, demethylation, phenolation, sulphonation, hydrolytic depolymerization, and reductive depolymerization were conducted on lignin before incorporation in the synthesis of lignin-based phenol-formaldehyde resins. (springer.com)
  • Cannatelli, Mark D., and Ragauskas, Arthur J.. Laccase-mediated synthesis of lignin-core hyperbranched copolymers . (osti.gov)
  • 1999
  • Gargulak JD, Lebo SE (1999) Commercial use of lignin-based materials. (springer.com)
  • Accordingly trees (lignin content somewhere around twenty percent and thirty percent of dry weight) develop much taller than grasses (lignin content beneath twenty percent) preceding they twist under their own weight (Bland, 1999). (ukessays.com)
  • coniferyl
  • From a chemical point of view, the parent lignin is an amorphous, polyphenolic material arising from enzyme-mediated dehydrogenative polymerization of three phenylpropanoid monomers: p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl alcohols [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The main building blocks of lignin are the hydroxycinnamyl alcohols (or monolignols) coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, with typically minor amounts of p -coumaryl alcohol ( Fig. 1 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Pempolimeran dari coniferyl alkohol untuk lignin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hatfield, Ralph and ARS geneticist Jane Marita at Madison are now leading efforts to engineer plants to make lignin with coniferyl ferulate. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • carbon
  • Lignin constitutes 30% of non- fossil organic carbon and 20 to 35% of the dry mass of wood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignin plays a central role in carbon cycling on Earth. (pnas.org)
  • Lignin from crop residues plays an important role in the soil organic carbon cycling, as it constitutes a recalcitrant carbon pool affecting nutrient mineralization and carbon sequestration. (hindawi.com)
  • Lignin plays a significant role in the carbon cycle , sequestering atmospheric carbon into the living tissues of woody perennial vegetation . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Lignin has been used as a proxy to study biogeochemical processes and transportation of land derived carbon from land to lakes, rivers, coastal areas and deep marine environments. (novapublishers.com)
  • This book shapes the current state of the art in lignin molecular biogeochemistry research that highlights the potential future applications for this important biomarker for vegetation change and land-derived biogenic carbon transportations. (novapublishers.com)
  • Researchers combined a melt-stable hardwood lignin with conventional plastic, a low-melting nylon, and carbon fiber to create a composite with just the right characteristics for extrusion and weld strength between layers during the printing process, as well as excellent mechanical properties. (newswise.com)
  • Low cost and availability of lignin make it attractive precursor for preparation of a range of carbon materials, including activated carbons, activated carbon fibers (CF), structural CF, graphitic carbons or carbon black that could be used for environmental protection, as catalysts, in energy storage applications or as reinforcing components in advanced composite materials. (springer.com)
  • Alternatively, technical lignin could be used for production of carbon adsorbents, which have very high surface areas and pore volumes comparable to the best commercial activated carbons. (springer.com)
  • Li Q, Xie S, Serem WK et al (2017) Quality carbon fibers from fractionated lignin. (springer.com)
  • Suhas Carrott PJM, Ribeiro Carrott MML (2007) Lignin-from natural adsorbent to activated carbon: a review. (springer.com)
  • Mainka H, Täger O, Körner E et al (2015) Lignin-an alternative precursor for sustainable and cost-effective automotive carbon fiber. (springer.com)
  • Chatterjee S, Saito T (2015) Lignin-derived advanced carbon materials. (springer.com)
  • degrade
  • Past work has shown that the extracellular manganese- dependent peroxidases (MnPs) of ligninolytic fungi degrade the principal non-phenolic structures of lignin when they peroxidize unsaturated fatty acids. (usda.gov)
  • additive
  • Global lignin market is classified on the basis of application segments such as concrete additive, animal feed, dye stuff, etc. (sbwire.com)
  • chemistry
  • Here, however, we attempted to reconstruct larger lignin molecules by a simple crosslinking chemistry and then used it as a substitute for rigid phase in a formulation that behaves like crosslinked rubbers that can also be processed like plastics," Naskar said. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Chemistry of Lignin-Supplement Volume, 556-7 (1960) QD 321 B 78 1949-58. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • algae
  • However, it is present in red algae , which seems to suggest that the common ancestor of plants and red algae also synthesised lignin. (wikipedia.org)
  • European researchers proposed to use lignin, a structural component of many plants and algae, as an alternative raw material in chemical production. (europa.eu)
  • kraft
  • Lignin removed via the kraft process (sulfate pulping) is usually burned for its fuel value, providing energy to run the mill and its associated processes. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Lignin can be classified on the basis of product type such as lignosulfonates, kraft lignin and others (including organosolve, etc). (sbwire.com)
  • Kraft lignin possess different chemical properties than that of lignosulfonates. (sbwire.com)
  • Kraft lignin is mainly used in the manufacturing of dyes and insecticides. (sbwire.com)
  • Kraft lignin accounted for over 7% of the global lignin market share in 2014. (sbwire.com)
  • The current study aims at developing lignin-core hyperbranched copolymers via the laccase-assisted copolymerization of kraft lignin with methylhydroquinone and a trithiol. (osti.gov)
  • byproduct
  • Turning lignin, a plant's structural "glue" and a byproduct of the paper and pulp industry, into something considerably more valuable is driving a research effort headed by Amit Naskar of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (innovations-report.com)
  • Instead of using nearly 50 million tons of lignin byproduct produced annually as a low-cost fuel to power paper and pulp mills, the material can be transformed into a lignin-derived high-value plastic. (innovations-report.com)
  • While the lignin byproduct in raw form is worth just pennies a pound as a fuel, the value can potentially increase by a factor of 10 or more after the conversion. (innovations-report.com)
  • pulp and pape
  • SmartLi set out to develop valorisation routes for lignin sourcing it from pulp and paper industry by-products. (europa.eu)
  • The pulp and paper industry has long produced lignin on the scale of millions of tons annually as a by-product of the pulping process, and the dawn of cellulosic ethanol production has further contributed to this amount. (osti.gov)
  • 2016
  • Aiso H, Ishiguri F, Ohkubo T, Yokota S (2016) Cell morphology and lignin distribution of reaction wood in Tetracentron sinense . (springer.com)
  • Rinaldi R, Jastrzebski R, Clough MT et al (2016) Paving the way for lignin valorisation: recent advances in bioengineering, biorefining and catalysis. (springer.com)
  • monolignols
  • Many grasses have mostly G, while some palms have mainly S. All lignins contain small amounts of incomplete or modified monolignols, and other monomers are prominent in non-woody plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Banyak rumput kebanyakannya G, sementara beberapa tapak tangan telah terutamanya S. Semua lignins mengandungi sejumlah kecil yang tidak lengkap atau diubah suai monolignols, dan lain-lain monomer menonjol di non-woody tumbuh-tumbuhan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignin biosintesis (Angka 4) bermula di cytosol dengan sintesis terglikosilat monolignols dari asam amino phenylalanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Researchers accomplished this by reconstructing larger lignin molecules either through a chemical reaction with formaldehyde or by washing with methanol. (innovations-report.com)
  • This reaction is likely to be relevant to ligninolysis in sound wood, where enzymes cannot penetrate, only if it employs a small, diffusible lipid radical as the proximal oxidant of lignin. (usda.gov)
  • On the other hand, reaction wood showed decrease in the lignin concentration in the fiber tracheid walls compared to the tracheid walls. (springer.com)
  • Aiso H, Hiraiwa T, Ishiguri F, Iizuka K, Yokota S, Yoshizawa N (2013) Anatomy and lignin distribution of "compression-wood-like reaction wood" in Gardenia jasminoides . (springer.com)
  • Effects of some factors including the type of lignin, substitution ratio, and reaction conditions on the performance of the obtained LPF resins were discussed in detail. (springer.com)
  • processes
  • What we have right now with current bioconversion processes often resembles a white rot approach," he said, "attacking lignin to get at carbohydrates and then converting them to fuels, chemicals or paper. (redorbit.com)
  • Lignin from various pulping processes has been shown to be applicable in electrochemical sensors owing to its residual quinone moieties, which are redox and thus electro-active [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been proposed to utilize the lignin derivatives contained in black liquors obtained from the pulping of hardwoods and softwoods both by the sulphite and alkali pulping processes, but as yet no major commercial use of the waste products has transpired. (google.com)
  • Apart from industrial feasibility, lignin materials enhance sustainable processes by reducing greenhouse gas emissions as they reduce our dependency on fossil-based materials,″ explains project coordinator Christine Hagström-Näsi. (europa.eu)
  • Although these drying processes are adaptable to various lignin modifications, they are particularly suitable for use with the products of this invention. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • chemical
  • Herein, we show chemical changes in lignin upon passage of undegraded wood through two wood-feeding insect gut systems, one that naturally feeds on living healthy trees and a second that typically feeds on dead wood. (pnas.org)
  • Crosslinking involves building large lignin molecules by combining smaller molecules where formaldehyde helps to bridge the smaller units by chemical bonding. (innovations-report.com)
  • The lignin chemical business of Marathon was operated for many years as Marathon Chemicals. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In some cases the black liquor containing the lignin derivatives and spent pulping chemical is simply discarded into rivers and the sea causing a pollution problem. (google.com)
  • Slowing and other Scientists at Ames Laboratory are currently working to reach that commercialization target, experimenting with chemical reactions that are capable of decomposing lignin models at low pressures and temperatures. (azocleantech.com)
  • Vfizquez G, Gonzfilez J, Freire S, Antorrena G (1997) Effect of chemical modification of lignin on the gluebond performance of lignin-phenolic resins. (springer.com)
  • hydrogen
  • The thermal stability of the system was observed to increase owing to a strong interaction of the lignin-PVA matrix with the dispersed CNCs, mainly via hydrogen bonding, as observed in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments. (usda.gov)
  • structural
  • It is commonly accepted that lignin evolved together with the adaptation of plants to a terrestrial life to provide them with the structural support needed for an erect growth habit ( Fig. 3 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Structural characteristics of lignin are critical to enhance 3D printability of the materials," said ORNL's Ngoc Nguyen who collaborated on the project. (newswise.com)
  • Past the structural capacity, lignin plays a few other essential organic parts in plants. (ukessays.com)
  • crops
  • Both mapping of quantitative trait loci and transgenic approaches have been adopted to modify lignin in crops. (hindawi.com)
  • Reduction of lignin in biofuel crops by genetic engineering is likely one of the most effective ways of reducing costs associated with pretreatment and hydrolysis of cellulosic feedstocks, although some potential fitness issues should also be addressed. (springer.com)
  • Modified lignin could make fibrous crops more digestible, allowing producers to feed more forage crops and less grain to their livestock. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • phenolic
  • The usefulness of lignin in the adsorption of harmful organic compounds (including heavy metals) results from the presence of multiple functional groups in its structure, including phenolic, hydroxyl, carboxyl, and methoxy groups. (hindawi.com)
  • Del Saz-Orozco B, Alonso MV, Oliet M et al (2015) Lignin particle- and wood flour-reinforced phenolic foams: Friability, thermal stability and effect of hygrothermal aging on mechanical properties and morphology. (springer.com)
  • methoxy groups
  • The remaining lignin is demethylated on aryl methoxy groups and contains a greater number of ring hydroxyl groups ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • phenol-formaldehyde
  • Lignin recovered from the hot-water extract of sugar maple ( Acer saccharum ) is used in this study to synthesize adhesive blends to replace phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin. (mdpi.com)
  • Grishechko LI, Amaral-Labat G, Szczurek A et al (2013) Lignin-phenol-formaldehyde aerogels and cryogels. (springer.com)
  • deposition
  • Wang Z. Y. Lignin deposition and associated changes in anatomy, enzyme activity, gene expression and ruminal degradability in stems of tall fescue at different developmental stages. (springer.com)
  • fractionation
  • Using fractionation methods for separating lignin, they were able to recover lignin fractions with equal properties from different starting lignin materials and characterise them. (europa.eu)
  • species
  • Using tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis, we show lignin degradation by two insect species, the Asian longhorned beetle ( Anoplophora glabripennis ) and the Pacific dampwood termite ( Zootermopsis angusticollis ). (pnas.org)
  • Little is known about lignin degradation in complex ecosystems, such as insect guts, where a consortium of microbes may be involved in degradation rather than just a single species. (pnas.org)
  • Although the majority of previous reports suggest that many wood-feeding insects overcome the lignin barrier by feeding on predegraded wood ( 11 ) or through exosymbiotic relationships with wood-degrading fungi ( 12 , 13 ), there are species of insects that feed on the inner wood of living, healthy trees. (pnas.org)
  • dicot
  • lignins from gymnosperms are composed of G-units only (with minor amounts of H-units), whereas angiosperm dicot lignins are composed of G- and S-units. (plantphysiol.org)
  • fibers
  • A ternary lignin-PVA-water phase diagram was constructed as a tool to rationalize the effect of mixing ratios on the dispersion electrospinability and morphology of the resulting fibers. (usda.gov)