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  • cofactors
  • Here, cofactors were defined as an additional substance apart from protein and substrate that is required for enzyme activity and a prosthetic group as a substance that undergoes its whole catalytic cycle attached to a single enzyme molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • This technique provides for the transfer of vectors and expression of recombinant genes in vivo and allows the introduction of proteins of therapeutic or diagnostic value for the treatment of disease. (google.com)
  • With the rapid accumulation of genomic information from various eukaryotes in the last decade, genes proposed to have been derived from recent horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events have been reported even in non-phagotrophic unicellular and multicellular organisms, but the molecular pathways underlying HGT remain to be explained. (jove.com)
  • Typically, we use loss-of-function single mutants bearing non-essential gene deletions ( e.g. the 'Keio' collection 11 ) and essential gene hypomorphic mutations ( i.e. alleles conferring reduced protein expression, stability, or activity 9, 12, 13 ) to query the functional associations of non-essential and essential genes, respectively. (jove.com)
  • Conversely, alleviating (or positive) interactions can occur between genes in the same pathway or protein complex 2 as the deletion of either gene alone is often sufficient to perturb the normal function of the pathway or complex such that additional perturbations do not reduce activity, and hence growth, further. (jove.com)
  • List of proteins contains large amounts of information concerning genes and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Using a combination of Bioaffinity chromatography and hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, the mechanism of transfer of RA during the CRABP/RA/RAR interaction was studied. (umass.edu)
  • This led to a model in which during RA transfer from CRABP to RAR, the backbone of CRABP is destabilized through its interaction with RAR. (umass.edu)
  • This initial binding changes the shape of the SU protein to one that facilitates interaction between SU and the chemokine receptor CXCR4. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first step in this proposed model is an interaction with the unfolded fusion protein (TAT) and the membrane through electrostatic interactions, which disrupt the membrane enough to allow the fusion protein to cross the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • We applied a horizontal DNA transfer system model based on conjugal gene transfer called trans-kingdom conjugation (TKC) from the prokaryote Escherichia coli to the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and assessed whether and to what extent genetic variations in the eukaryotic recipient affect its receptivity to TKC. (jove.com)
  • Phenotypes are determined by a complex series of physical ( e.g. protein-protein) and functional ( e.g. gene-gene or genetic) interactions (GI) 1 . (jove.com)
  • It is now twenty years since the first legal gene transfer studies were approved, and there has been considerable disappointment in the slow rate of progress that followed the initial studies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Examples include ex vivo gene transfer to modify cells, which are then infused into patients as described in "Gene Transfer and T-cell Therapies for Viral Infection and Cancer" and in the accompanying article by Aiuti and Roncarolo, beginning on page 678, and by local injection of vectors directly into sites with highly circumscribed anatomy, such as the retina. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This similarity suggests horizontal gene transfer between Archaea and ancestors of T. maritima and could help to explain why T. maritima is capable of surviving in such extreme temperatures and conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • All animal rhodopsins arose (by gene duplication and divergence) late in the history of the large GPCR [G-Protein Coupled Receptor] gene family, which itself arose after the divergence of plants, fungi, choanflagellates and sponges from the earliest animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9) Light-activated rhodopsin/guanylyl cyclase A phylogenetic analysis of microbial rhodopsins and a detailed analysis of potential examples of horizontal gene transfer have been published. (wikipedia.org)
  • Henipaviruses employ an unusual process called RNA editing to generate multiple proteins from a single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • major histocompatibility
  • Natural killer T (NKT) cells are unique unconventional T cells that are reactive to lipid antigens presented on the non-polymorphic major histocompatibility class (MHC) I-like molecule CD1d. (frontiersin.org)
  • extracellular
  • During the activation of these transport systems, 'pores' are formed through protein structures that transiently connect the intracellular and extracellular milieu. (dovepress.com)
  • A carrier is not open simultaneously to both the extracellular and intracellular environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The successful transport of dietary and endogenous lipids to peripheral tissues which are used as an energy source is due to APOB and APOE Apolipoprtoeins. (prospecbio.com)
  • electron
  • The inter-monomer space within the core of the cytochrome b6f complex dimer is occupied by lipids, which provides directionality to heme-heme electron transfer through modulation of the intra-protein dielectric environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytochrome b6f complex is responsible for "non-cyclic" (1) and "cyclic" (2) electron transfer between two mobile redox carriers, plastoquinone (QH2) and plastocyanin (Pc): Cytochrome b6f catalyzes the transfer of electrons from plastoquinol to plastocyanin, while pumping two protons from the stroma into the thylakoid lumen: QH2 + 2Pc(Cu2+) + 2H+ (stroma) → Q + 2Pc(Cu+) + 4H+ (lumen) This reaction occurs through the Q cycle as in Complex III. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastoquinone acts as the electron carrier, transferring its two electrons to high- and low-potential electron transport chains (ETC) via a mechanism called electron bifurcation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reduced iron-sulfur center transfers its electron through cytochrome f to Pc. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the low-potential ETC, SQ transfers its electron to heme bp of cytochrome b6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heme bp then transfers the electron to heme bn. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the low-potential ETC, the electron from heme bn is transferred to SQ, and the completely reduced Q2− takes up two protons from the stroma to form QH2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various flavoproteins and iron-sulphur proteins have been identified as potential electron carriers for use during cellular respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane protein structures can be determined by X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy or NMR spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first half reaction manganese covalently coordinates to the superoxide anion on its oxygen binding site, through inner-sphere electron transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is accomplished by coordinating electron-withdrawing ligands around the metal center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metal-containing electron transfer proteins are also common. (wikipedia.org)
  • This property determines the kinetics and thermodynamics of an electron transfer reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • A structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e.g. histones) that carries hereditary information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, the number of known CPPs has expanded considerably and small molecule synthetic analogues with more effective protein transduction properties have been generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • However, the number of these proteins is not sufficient to interact with a large number of semiochemicals. (pnas.org)
  • However, ceramide can possibly interact with other lipids to form bigger regions called microdomains which restrict its flip-flopping abilities. (wikipedia.org)