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  • lymphoma
  • This hypothesis has not been confirmed by other reports, although a French study that evaluated occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among men appears to support the hypothesis that occupational pesticide exposures may not only be involved in hairy cell leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma, but also may play a role in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • bone
  • This cell infiltrates the patient's reticuloendothelial system and interferes with bone marrow function, resulting in bone marrow failure or pancytopenia. (medscape.com)
  • Accumulation of hairy cells in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen, with very little lymph node involvement, is characteristic of hairy cell leukemia. (medscape.com)
  • This pattern probably results from the expression of the integrin receptor alpha4-beta1 by the hairy cells and the interaction of the receptor with the vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) found in splenic and hepatic endothelia, bone marrow, and splenic stroma. (medscape.com)
  • Untreated hairy cell leukemia is characterized by splenomegaly, varying degrees of leukopenia (occasionally leukocytosis) and/or pancytopenia, and bone marrow infiltration by an atypical cell with prominent cytoplasmic projections (i.e., hairy cells). (uni-bonn.de)
  • therefore, bone marrow biopsies are required for diagnosis and evaluation of the degree of hairy cell infiltration. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Progressive hairy cell leukemia postsplenectomy (or after any systemic therapy), is characterized by progressive bone marrow replacement by hairy cells with pancytopenia refractory to treatment. (uni-bonn.de)
  • tumors
  • Recently, new DNA scanning techniques using whole-exome sequencing identified 5 missense somatic clonal mutations, including a heterozygous mutation in BRAF that results in the BRAF V600E variant protein, which is oncogenic for other tumors as well, was identified in all hairy cell leukemia patients and may be responsible for the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and targeted therapy of hairy cell leukemia. (medscape.com)
  • symptoms
  • Symptoms of pancytopenia in hairy cell leukemia are related to anemia (fatigue and weakness), thrombocytopenia (bleeding or easy bruising), and neutropenia (infections). (medscape.com)
  • hairy cell leu
  • The abnormal cell in hairy cell leukemia is a clonal B-cell lymphocyte (see image below). (medscape.com)
  • The etiology of hairy cell leukemia has not been determined, although some investigators suggest that exposures to benzene, organophosphorus insecticides, or other solvents may be related to disease development. (medscape.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 protein, an important cell-cycle regulator, has been observed in hairy cell leukemia and may play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • Hairy cell leukemia is relatively uncommon and accounts for 2% of all leukemia cases, which is about 600-800 new patients diagnosed each year. (medscape.com)
  • Some geographic variations have been observed with hairy cell leukemia, such as an extremely low incidence in Japan. (medscape.com)
  • The BRAF -V600E mutation is a hairy cell leukemia-defining genetic lesion that can be used diagnostically. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Progressive hairy cell leukemia , either postsplenectomy or post-systemic therapy. (uni-bonn.de)
  • For patients with advanced hairy cell leukemia treated with cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, 2-CdA), pentostatin, or interferon-alpha, the survival rate appears to be higher than 85% at 5 years after the initiation of any one of these therapies. (uni-bonn.de)
  • The initial therapies of choice for hairy cell leukemia are either cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, 2-CdA) or pentostatin. (uni-bonn.de)
  • abnormal
  • [ 1 , 2 ] and named after the hairlike cytoplasmic projections seen on the surface of the abnormal B-cells (see the image below). (medscape.com)