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  • Ghrelin
  • Ghrelin, insulin, and leptin were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples drawn 38 times throughout a 24-h period in 10 healthy subjects provided meals on a fixed schedule. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Intermeal ghrelin levels displayed a diurnal rhythm that was exactly in phase with that of leptin, with both hormones rising throughout the day to a zenith at 0100, then falling overnight to a nadir at 0900. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • serum
  • Our recent cross-sectional analysis has suggested that high serum concentrations of leptin may be an independent risk factor for asthma in premenopausal women. (bmj.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the potential links between serum/plaque free leptin, serum sObR, carotid plaque stability and related symptomatology in 146 consecutive patients (71 asymptomatic and 75 symptomatic) scheduled for carotid endarterectomy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Free leptin was assessed in serum (17.05±23.19 ng/mL, range 0.47-191) and carotid plaques (0.204±0.486 ng/mg protein) and sObR in serum (21.48±8.81 ng/ml). (ahajournals.org)
  • human
  • The links between free leptin, sObR, human atherosclerotic carotid plaque phenotype remain unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interestingly, via ERK pathway activation, at 20 ng/mL, leptin induced a migratory signal and higher collagen synthesis in human VSMC, followed by a proliferative response of VSMC at the concentration of 75 ng/mL. (ahajournals.org)
  • cytokines
  • The adipocyte is an active endocrine secretory cell releasing free fatty acids and several cytokines and hormones including leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and angiotensin II (Ang II). (ahajournals.org)
  • sensitivity
  • Reduced sensitivity to leptin in some patients could explain why more leptin is found in obese people, the scientists note. (accessexcellence.org)
  • I mentioned a few of the working hypotheses for avoiding leptin resistance in my posts last week, including fructose and lectin avoidance, getting adequate nightly sleep, and eating at or above maintenance levels - or at least throwing in periodic carb refeeds - but there's even more involved in establishing a good relationship with your leptin levels and leptin sensitivity. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • adipose
  • Leptin is released from our white adipose tissue and communicates with the brain regarding how much fat we have in storage. (robbwolf.com)
  • Leptin is mainly secreted by the adipose tissue, which is also present within both primary and secondary lymphoid organs and has a significant metabolic and immunomodulatory role ( 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Leptin is produced by adipose tissue to signal fat storage reserves in the body, and mediates long-term appetitive controls (i.e. to eat more when fat storages are low and less when fat storages are high). (wikipedia.org)
  • Jeffrey Friedman
  • Earlier this year a team led by Jeffrey Friedman, M.D., Ph.D., professor at The Rockefeller University gained much public attention with a study documenting a 30 percent weight loss in genetically obese mice given daily injections of leptin for two weeks. (accessexcellence.org)
  • levels
  • In their latest study, the same investigators found that the greater the body mass and percent of fat, the higher the levels of leptin. (accessexcellence.org)
  • We found the amount of leptin highly correlates to how much fat is stored in the body, with greater levels found in individuals with more fat and reduced levels in those who dieted. (accessexcellence.org)
  • However, when compared by percent of body fat, women and men had similar leptin levels. (accessexcellence.org)
  • The greater absolute leptin levels in women reflects that they have higher body fat content than men," Friedman explains. (accessexcellence.org)
  • Dieting decreased leptin levels in the 13 volunteers. (accessexcellence.org)
  • In animal studies, the scientists found that leptin levels related to BMI. (accessexcellence.org)
  • Specifically, when the researchers compared normal weight mice from the same litters to four kinds of genetically overweight mice, the leptin levels were 10 times greater in diabetic (db) and yellow agouti (Ay) mutant mice, five-fold more in fat mutant mice and twice as high in tubby (tub) mutant mice. (accessexcellence.org)
  • Leptin levels in fatty (fa) mutant rats were 50 times greater than that of non-mutant litter mates. (accessexcellence.org)
  • In normal mice, leptin levels dropped to 60 percent of the pre-diet amount after a three-day fast and 20 percent after a six-day fast. (accessexcellence.org)
  • After dieting, the levels of leptin drop, suggesting that less leptin is made and available to signal the brain," Friedman says. (accessexcellence.org)
  • Increased intestinal mucosal leptin levels in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Under normal circumstances we seek out food when leptin levels are low, and should be satiated when leptin levels are high. (robbwolf.com)
  • Leptin may raise dopamine levels enough to make it easier to resist rewarding foods. (robbwolf.com)
  • However, if we are leptin resistant our dopamine levels may become deficient and we will crave sugary foods. (robbwolf.com)
  • Leptin levels and heart attack? (medhelp.org)
  • For example, leptin levels can fall if you aren't getting enough sleep . (refinery29.com)
  • and all had variants of leptin not detected by the standard immunoreactive technique, so leptin levels were low or undetectable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schwartz MW, Peskind E, Raskind M, Nicolson M, Moore J, Morawiecki A, Boyko EJ, Porte D Jr. Cerebrospinal Fluid leptin levels: Relationship to plasma levels and to adiposity in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although administration of leptin may be effective in a small subset of obese individuals who are leptin-deficient, most obese individuals are thought to be leptin resistant and have been found to have high levels of leptin. (wikipedia.org)
  • type 2 diabet
  • 16 Moreover, in 207 women with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, low plasma leptin predicted cardiovascular mortality during a 7-year follow-up period. (ahajournals.org)
  • stimulation
  • Stimulation of RASF with leptin activated IkappaB kinase alpha/beta (IKK alpha/beta), p65 phosphorylation at Ser(276), p65 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, and kappaB-luciferase activity. (wellnessresources.com)
  • PI3K
  • Leptin promotes pulmonary fibrosis development by inhibiting autophagy via PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that leptin increased IL-8 production in synovial fibroblast via the OBRl/JAK2/STAT3 pathway, as well as the activation of IRS1/PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB-dependent pathway and the subsequent recruitment of p300. (wellnessresources.com)
  • mammalian
  • While the first two regulate survival, growth and differentiation of erythroid and megakaryocytic progenitors respectively, leptin is crucial for mammalian body weight regulation[1- (springer.com)
  • The large differences among endothermic (warm-blooded) mammalian and ectothermic (cold-blooded) teleost leptins raised the question of whether the energy homeostatic functions of the teleost leptins are conserved. (wikipedia.org)