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  • upstream
  • In vitro constructions utilize multicopy plasmids containing suitable cloning sites located between upstream transcription terminators and downstream lac operon segments whose lacZ genes retain or lack translational start signals. (nih.gov)
  • genetic
  • The purpose of this work is two-fold: (1) to develop a novel mathematical and computational framework that incorporates the major sources of cell population heterogeneity and (2) to use this framework to demonstrate the effect of stochasticity on cell population heterogeneity in an artificial lac operon genetic network. (rice.edu)
  • absence
  • Two progeny were obtained that express large T antigen in the presence, but not the absence, of the nonmetabolizable lac inducer, isopropyl-beta-thio-D-galactoside. (aacrjournals.org)
  • simulation
  • Dr. Kreher had found a lac operon computer simulation program - which is free - that you can manipulate to see what happens when you "mutate" (i.e., remove) certain elements, add lactose, etc. (docwithpen.org)
  • derivatives
  • Examples include: Lac (the ability to use lactose), His (the ability to synthesize the amino acid histidine) Mot (swimming motility) SmR (resistance to the antibiotic streptomycin) In the case of Lac, wild type cells are Lac+ and are able to use lactose as a carbon and energy source, while Lac− mutant derivatives cannot use lactose. (homeworkclinic.com)