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  • Xenopus
  • Experiments involving single-channel and whole-cell recording, surface Western blots, and immunofluorescence of live cells reveal that expression of PSD-95 increases surface expression and channel opening rates of NMDARs in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • proteins
  • Sequence analysis of Kir4.1 and AQP4 channels reveals that they each contain a C-terminal consensus sequence for binding to PDZ [postsynaptic density-95 (PSD)/Discs large/zona occludens-domain-containing proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Striational antibodies, which react with epitopes on the muscle proteins titin, ryanodine receptor (RyR), and Kv1.4, are frequently found in MG patients with late-onset and thymoma. (hindawi.com)
  • blood vessels
  • The primary conductance in Müller cells is the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 (BIR10 and KAB-2), which is highly concentrated at the endfeet at the vitreal border and to processes enveloping blood vessels. (jneurosci.org)
  • In heart, 1 brain, 2 kidney, 3 adipose tissue, 4 muscle, 5 and blood vessels, 6 the ATP-dependent potassium channels (KATP channels) emerge as the most important sensors of cellular energy status. (ahajournals.org)
  • outward
  • Patch-clamp studies of the atrial myocyte from experimental models or of human chronic AF revealed that AF reduces the expression levels of some ion channels, including the L-type Ca 2+ channel, transient outward current ( I to ), and Na + channel. (ahajournals.org)
  • presynaptic
  • Utilizing recent improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio of voltage-sensitive dye imaging in mouse brain slices, we demonstrate that intracortical axon collaterals and en passant presynaptic terminals of layer 5 pyramidal cells exhibit a high density of Kv1 subunit-containing ion channels, which generate a slowly inactivating K + current critically important for spike repolarization in these compartments. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, subthreshold depolarization of the soma broadened action potentials in collaterals bearing presynaptic boutons, an effect abolished by blocking Kv1 channels with α-dendrotoxin. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results indicate that action potential-induced synaptic transmission may operate through a mix of analog-digital transmission owing to the properties of Kv1 channels in axon collaterals and presynaptic boutons. (jneurosci.org)
  • The computation performed by a single cortical neuron depends upon the distribution and properties of ionic channels in its axon collaterals, since these determine the shape of action potentials in local presynaptic terminals, the rate and amplitude of calcium influx, and subsequently the probability of neurotransmitter release. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, it is unknown whether en passant presynaptic terminals located on axon collaterals also contain Kv1 channels and propagate broadened spikes during subthreshold somatic depolarization. (jneurosci.org)
  • increases
  • PSD-95 increases the number of functional channels at the cell surface and channel opening rate of NMDARs, with little or no change in conductance, reversal potential, or mean open time. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show further that PSD-95 increases NMDAR surface expression by increasing the rate of channel insertion and decreasing the rate of channel internalization. (jneurosci.org)
  • Focal extracellular potassium increases in isolated Müller cells shows that Kir channels in the mdx 3Cv cells, as opposed to wild type, are less prominently concentrated in their endfeet. (jneurosci.org)
  • promoter
  • In electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, FoxO1 binds to the FoxO concensus site of the KATP channel subunit KIR6.1 promoter. (ahajournals.org)
  • functional
  • Herein we investigated whether the distribution and functional properties of Kir4.1 channels are dependent on expression of the Dp71, a dystrophin isoform expressed in Müller cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • ionic
  • Newer models however include a variety of different ionic conductances often related to specific ion channels. (hamilton.ie)
  • 1993
  • Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels are highly concentrated in the endfoot of retinal glial Müller cell and sparsely expressed in other domains of the cell ( Newman, 1993 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • 1995
  • and nonselective cation channels in guinea pig ventricular myocytes ( Jabr and Cole, 1995 ) and in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar membranes ( Bertl and Slayman, 1990 ). (rupress.org)