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  • sperm
  • Yet, despite decades of studies providing descriptions of the gametogenic processes, we know very little about what drives and controls the development of sperm and oocytes. (genetics.org)
  • He observed that the union of the sperm and oocyte involved fusion of their respective nuclei. (edu.au)
  • germ cell
  • Co-expression of cyp26a1 and the pluripotent germ cell stem cell marker pou5f1(oct4) in meiotically arrested oocytes was consistent with roles in mouse to promote germ cell survival and to prevent apoptosis, mechanisms that are central for tipping the sexual fate of gonads towards the female pathway in zebrafish. (jove.com)
  • Drosophila
  • The Drosophila oocyte has been established as a versatile system for investigating fundamental questions such as cytoskeletal function, cell organization, and organelle structure and function. (jove.com)
  • The availability of various GFP-tagged proteins means that many cellular processes can be monitored in living cells over the course of minutes or hours, and using this technique, processes such as RNP transport, epithelial morphogenesis, and tissue remodeling have been described in great detail in Drosophila oocytes 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • We found that phosphodocking 14-3-3 proteins stabilize spindle bipolarity in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. (rupress.org)
  • fertilization
  • The infertility of mice harboring Hdac1 −/+ / Hdac2 −/− oocytes is attributed to failure of those few eggs that properly mature to metaphase II to initiate DNA replication following fertilization. (prolekare.cz)
  • Next, the oocytes are introduced into the body cavity of an ovulating host female frog, whereupon they will be translocated through the host's oviduct and acquire modifications and jelly coats necessary for fertilization. (jove.com)
  • oct4
  • The resulting OLCs express various markers consistent with oocytes such as Oct4 , Vasa , Bmp15 , and Scp3 . (jove.com)
  • histone
  • Changes in histone acetylation occur during oocyte development and maturation, but the role of specific histone deacetylases in these processes is poorly defined. (prolekare.cz)
  • Depleting maternal HDAC2 results in hyperacetylation of H4K16 as determined by immunocytochemistry-normal deacetylation of other lysine residues of histone H3 or H4 is observed-and defective chromosome condensation and segregation during oocyte maturation occurs in a sub-population of oocytes. (prolekare.cz)
  • These results implicate HDAC2 as the major HDAC that regulates global histone acetylation during oocyte development and, furthermore, suggest HDAC2 is largely responsible for the deacetylation of H4K16 during maturation. (prolekare.cz)
  • embryos
  • In metazoan oocytes and early embryos, NPCs reside not only within the NE, but also at some endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane sheets, termed annulate lamellae (AL). (sdbonline.org)
  • arrest
  • Many studies have shown that cyclic adenosine-5-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and G-protein-coupled receptor 3 (GPR3) are crucial for controlling meiotic arrest in oocytes. (jove.com)
  • Proteins
  • Isolated follicles can be used for a variety of experimental techniques, including in vitro development assays, live imaging, mRNA expression analysis and western blot analysis of proteins. (jove.com)
  • Cells
  • During FSH-induced maturation, rapid cAMP surges were observed in both cumulus cells and oocyte. (jove.com)
  • Most GJC between cumulus cells and oocyte ceased immediately after FSH stimulation and recommenced after the cAMP surge. (jove.com)
  • These cells could then be differentiated into the affected cell type of the patient and studied in vitro, or used to replace the damaged or missing cells. (jove.com)
  • Indication, Collection, and Laboratory Processing of Cytologic Samples -- The Cellular and Acellular Components of the Urinary Sediment -- The Cytologic Makeup of the Urinary Sediment According to the Collection Technique -- Cytologic Manifestations of Benign Disorders Affecting Cells of the Lower Urinary Tract -- Tumors and Related Conditions of the Bladder and Lower Urinary Tract -- Urine-Based Assays Complementing Cytologic Examination in the Detection of Urothelial Neoplasm. (stanford.edu)
  • Low levels of LIS1 mRNA can be detected in the germarium in regions 1 and 2 and in both nurse cells and the oocyte in stage 2-4 egg chambers. (sdbonline.org)
  • vivo
  • Herein we used shRNA depletion and a novel lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA) inhibitor, GNE-140, to probe the role of LDHA in tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. (stanford.edu)
  • ovary
  • The ovarian follicle is the functional unit of the ovary that secretes sex hormones and supports oocyte maturation. (jove.com)
  • Oocytes are manually defolliculated from donor ovary tissue, injected or treated in culture as desired, and then stimulated with progesterone to induce maturation. (jove.com)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, many of the techniques to overexpress or inhibit gene function in organisms such as Xenopus and zebrafish fail to sufficiently target critical maternal signaling pathways, such as Wnt signaling. (jove.com)
  • Collectively
  • Collectively, our results showed that resveratrol can protect the oocytes from methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity and this was mainly through the correction of the abnormity of cellular reactive oxygen species metabolism. (jove.com)
  • All these observations collectively point to mammalian oocyte size being an important factor that limits the ability of the SAC to inhibit the APC. (rupress.org)
  • females
  • Previous studies showed that the accumulation of methylglyoxal and advanced glycation ends can impair the oocyte maturation and reduce the oocyte quality in aged and diabetic females. (jove.com)
  • mice
  • We report here that mice harboring Hdac1 −/+ / Hdac2 −/− or Hdac2 −/− oocytes are infertile or sub-fertile, respectively. (prolekare.cz)
  • nuclear
  • Nuclear transfer into an unfertilized oocyte can restore developmental potential to a differentiated cell. (jove.com)
  • experiments
  • Previous antibody-blocking experiments have demonstrated that toad ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (tUCHL1) is necessary for germinal vesicle breakdown during toad oocyte maturation. (jove.com)
  • In the context of MPF (maturation promoting factor) controlling oocyte maturation and to further understand the role of UCHL1 in oocyte maturation, we performed adsorption and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using toad oocyte protein extracts and determined that tUCHL1 is associated with MPF in toad oocytes. (jove.com)
  • Processes
  • this allows one to combine genetic or pharmacologic perturbations with in vitro development to define the effects of such manipulations on the processes occurring during specific periods of development. (jove.com)
  • Further investigation of these processes revealed that methylglyoxal may affect the oocyte quality by resulting in excessive reactive oxygen species production, aberrant mitochondrial distribution and high level lipid peroxidation, and resveratrol can block these cytotoxic changes. (jove.com)
  • describe
  • Herein, we describe an encapsulation method and an in vitro culture system for ovarian follicles within a FA-IPN. (jove.com)
  • assembly
  • In this study, we showed that resveratrol, a kind of phytoalexin found in the skin of grapes, red wine and other botanical extracts, can alleviate the adverse effects caused by methylglyoxal, such as inhibition of oocyte maturation and disruption of spindle assembly. (jove.com)
  • temperature
  • In oocytes from hibernation-interrupted toads, the p34(cdc2) protein level was significantly lower than in oocytes from toads in artificial hibernation, providing an explanation for the different quantities isolated by recombinant tUCHL1 pull-down and, more importantly, identifying a mechanism involved in the toad oocytes dependence on a low environmental temperature during winter hibernation. (jove.com)
  • development
  • In vitro follicle techniques provide a tool to model follicle development in order to investigate basic biology, and are further being developed as a technique to preserve fertility in the clinic 1-4 . (jove.com)
  • Our in vitro culture system employs hydrogels in order to mimic the native ovarian environment by maintaining the 3D follicular architecture, cell-cell interactions and paracrine signaling that direct follicle development 5 . (jove.com)
  • function
  • In Xenopus , manipulating gene function in cultured oocytes and subsequently fertilizing them can ameliorate these problems to some extent. (jove.com)
  • factors
  • Then, we exclude protein availability and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase enzyme activity as factors in the response of oocytes to winter hibernation. (jove.com)
  • large
  • Therefore, 14-3-3 translates a spatial cue provided by Aurora B to target Ncd selectively to the spindle within the large volume of oocytes. (rupress.org)
  • genetic
  • Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. (jove.com)