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  • cyclins
  • The idea that Cdc2 and cyclins play a key role in the control of the G2/M transition of the cell cycle came largely from genetic analysis of fission yeast and physiological studies of clam, frog, sea urchin and starfish eggs and oocytes. (biologists.org)
  • Cyclins were first recognized as proteins whose abundance oscillates during the early cell cycles of marine invertebrate eggs and their connection with MPF (maturation-promoting factor), the entity defined in frog and starfish oocytes whose activity controls entry into M phase, was far from clear at first. (biologists.org)
  • motif
  • BRD2 is part of the Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal motif (BET) protein family that also contains BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT in mammals Early descriptions demonstrated that BRD2 gene product is a mitogen-activated kinase which localizes to the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to PAK4, PAK5 consists of a kinase, a CDC42/Rac1 interactive binding (CRIB) motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • This kinase contains a CDC42/Rac1 interactive binding (CRIB) motif, and has been shown to bind CDC42 in the presence of GTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • U2AF homology motif (UHM) kinase 1, also known as UHMK1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the UHMK1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • We found that leaf cells facing the cut undergo CDK activation along with induction of a D-type cyclin, tip growth, and transcriptional activation of protonema-specific genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • There is an increased risk that the tumor cells will mutate other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • Inhibition of caspases allows the cells to go beyond the metaphase arrest, indicating that apoptosis is responsible for cell death by mitotic catastrophe. (uu.nl)
  • In another, completely different model of mitotic catastrophe, namely 14.3.3 -deficient HCT116 colon carcinoma cells treated with doxorubicin, Chk2 activation was also found to be deficient as compared to 14.3.3 -sufficient controls. (uu.nl)
  • Inhibition of Chk2 again facilitated the induction of mitotic catastrophe in HCT116 wild-type cells. (uu.nl)
  • Although there is no evidence that human NEKs are essential for mitotic entry, it is clear that several NEK family members have important roles in cell cycle control. (biologists.org)
  • A mitotic cascade of NIMA family kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • subcellular localization
  • Accomplishing an asymmetric division requires coordination between cell cycle-dependent gene expression and the dynamic subcellular localization and function of signaling proteins ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Kinase activity is regulated at least in part, by the polo-boxes that are functionally important for both auto-inhibition and subcellular localization. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • The same year, Wagenaar analyzed the timing of synthesis of proteins required for mitosis in the early cell cycles of sea urchin embryos ( Wagenaar, 1983 ), extending previous reports that puromycin added at the time of fertilization prevents the first division ( Hultin, 1961 ). (biologists.org)
  • C ) Duration of mitosis in normal or abnormally dividing cells. (nih.gov)
  • Not surprisingly, cells have developed complex, and often redundant, mechanisms that enable them to undergo mitosis without errors. (biologists.org)
  • The phases include the G1 and G2 phases, DNA replication or S phase, and the actual process of cell division, mitosis or M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • While positive feedback initiates mitosis, a negative feedback loop promotes the inactivation of the cyclin-dependent kinases by the anaphase-promoting complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle is divided into two primary phases: DNA synthesis or S phase and Mitosis or M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Abnormal spindle (Asp), a Polo kinase substrate, is a microtubule-associated protein essential for correct behavior of spindle poles and M-phase microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • This demonstrated that protein synthesis is required at each cell cycle for chromosome condensation and nuclear envelope breakdown and thus for the G2/M phase transition to occur. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, many cancers exhibit chromosome instability, whereby there is frequent loss or gain of chromosomes at each cell division. (biologists.org)
  • CDC5 is believed to have roles in sister-kinetochore coorientation and chromosome segregation during meiosis I. Plk1 is considered a proto-oncogene, whose overexpression is often observed in tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Activation of the GCN2 arm of the Integrated Stress Response (ISR) in response to amino acid deprivation is one mechanism by which tumor cells cope with nutrient stress. (upenn.edu)
  • Functionally, ablation of p21 ameliorates G1/S arrest and reduces cell survival in response to GCN2 activation. (upenn.edu)
  • Activation of the cell-cycle kinase (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, Cdk5 has been reported to be involved in T cell activation and play an important role in development of autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Normally, Cdk5 kinase, a Ser/Thr kinase of the cyclin dependent kinase family is essential for neuronal development, neuronal migration, cortical layering, synapse formation and behavioral functions [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The kinase targets a large number of neuronal protein substrates with proline directed Ser/Thr residues, which accounts, in part, for its importance in the nervous system. (omicsonline.org)
  • The PAK5 was initially cloned as a brain-specific kinase with a predominant expression in brain with a suggested role in neurite growth in neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • Dissecting the roles of ROCK isoforms in stress-induced cell detachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants of the genus Euphorbiaceae and Thymelaeaceae possess a wide variety of different phorbol esters, which share the capacity of mimicking diacylglycerol (DAG) and thus activating different isoforms of protein kinase C. Mezerein was first isolated in 1975. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiation
  • A well-studied model system exhibiting asymmetric division is the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus , which generates two distinct daughter cells every cell division ( Fig. 1 A ). A master regulator of cellular identity is the transcription factor CtrA, which when phosphorylated, directly controls the activity of over 90 cell cycle-regulated promoters while also inhibiting the initiation of DNA replication ( 2 ⇓ - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • attenuated tumor
  • Loss of GCN2 results in decreased tumor cell survival in vitro under amino acid deprivation and attenuated tumor growth in xenograft models. (upenn.edu)
  • phosphatase activity
  • We further show that CckA oligomerizes through a multidomain interaction that is critical for stimulation of kinase activity by DivL, while DivL stimulation of CckA phosphatase activity is independent of CckA homooligomerization. (pnas.org)
  • activity
  • As a model for how subcellular spatial information can control signaling activity, we have reconstituted the cell pole-specific control of the master regulator kinase/phosphatase CckA from the asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus . (pnas.org)
  • We reconstituted the DivL-CckA complex on liposomes in vitro and found that DivL directly controls the CckA kinase/phosphatase switch, and that stimulation of either CckA catalytic activity depends on the second of its two PAS domains. (pnas.org)
  • the kinase activity was modulated during the cell division cycle, and association of pRb with E1A apparently was not required for this activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A DNA-PK activity-deficient human glioblastoma cell line M059J, ataxia telangiectasia cell lines AT3BISV and AT5BIVA, and control cell lines were used. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The product encoded by this gene is predominantly localized in the nucleus and is a cell division cycle protein with kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although expression levels of the protein appear to be constant throughout the cell cycle, the protein kinase activity appears to increase during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusion between nonsynchronized cells leads to the formation of heterokarya which transiently activate Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 and enter the prophase of the cell cycle, where they arrest due to a loss of Cdk1/cyclin B1 activity, activate p53, disorganize centrosomes, and undergo apoptosis. (uu.nl)
  • Interestingly, FaDu cells with reduced cortactin levels also exhibited a significant diminution in RhoA expression and activity, together with decreased expression of Skp2, a critical component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase that targets p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) for degradation. (garvan.org.au)
  • Positive feedback loops play a role by switching cells from low to high Cdk-activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its activity is highly regulated during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoters
  • Second stage tumor promoters like mezerein do not have the capacity to initiate tumors, but can create circumstances in which initiated cells are more susceptible to additional mutations or in which initiated cells have growth advantage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • Inhibition of Chk2 thus can sensitize proliferating cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. (uu.nl)
  • vitro
  • We reconstituted the DivL-CckA interaction in vitro and showed that specific PAS domains of each protein function to switch CckA between kinase and phosphatase activities, which reflects their functions in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • Chk1
  • Thus, syncytia generated by the fusion of asynchronous HeLa cells contain elevated levels of active Chk2 but not Chk1. (uu.nl)
  • nuclear
  • Meiosis is a type of cellular division in which a single round of DNA replication is followed by two nuclear divisions, originating four haploid cells from a diploid parental one, and therefore reducing the chromosomal number to half. (csic.es)
  • The protein is nuclear in the M and G1 phases of the cell cycle and moves to the cytoplasm during S and G2. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • Here, we review the functions of the human NEKs, with particular emphasis on those family members that are involved in cell cycle control, and consider their potential as therapeutic targets in cancer. (biologists.org)
  • The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is part of the cyclin-dependent kinase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance throughout the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLK1
  • Defects in PLK1 are associated with gastric, thyroid and B-cell malignancies, with increased expression linked to a worse prognosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Supporting evidence comes from the overexpression studies of PLK1 in NIH3T3 cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells become capable of forming foci and growing in soft agar and more importantly, these cells can form tumors in nude mice due to PLK1 overexpression. (wikipedia.org)
  • When PLK1 expression was silenced with RNA interference in cell culture, K-RAS cells were selectively killed, without harming normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • division
  • Asymmetric cell division is a fundamental mechanism for generating cell type diversity across the kingdoms of life. (pnas.org)
  • In most cell cycles, an interval of time, G1 phase, separates the previous cell division from the beginning of the next S phase. (biologists.org)
  • Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Cell cycle and cell division" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Excised gametophore leaf cells of P. patens are readily reprogrammed, initiate tip growth, and form chloronema apical cells with stem cell characteristics at their first cell division. (deepdyve.com)
  • B ) Quantification of the proportion of cells with normal, multipolar, or clustered spindle poles at the time of division. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we review our current knowledge of how NEKs contribute to the process of cell division. (biologists.org)
  • The Actomyosin ring is a prominent structure during cytoplasmic division or cytokinesis (i.e., splitting from the parent cell after duplication and segregation of the genetic material has been completed). (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead a cell plate grows centrifugally outwards from the center of the plane of division until it fuses with the existing cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • telophase
  • Rho-kinases) during telophase initiates constriction of the actomyosin ring by creating a groove that migrates in an inward motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • binding protein
  • Background Cardiac stress may trigger production of the 40\kDa peptide fragment produced from the amino terminus from the cardiac myosin\binding protein C. function, cell viability, hypertrophy, or possibility of success. (biomasswars.com)
  • proteins
  • Purpose Review aberrations of insulin signaling to atypical proteins kinase C (aPKC) in muscles and liver that generate cardiovascular risk elements, including, weight problems, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin level of resistance and blood sugar intolerance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity-associated metabolic symptoms (MetSyn). (biomasswars.com)
  • as well as the downstream molecule extracellular indication regulated proteins kinase (ERK) 1/2, which induced the upregulation of p53 and Bcl-2-linked X proteins, mediating the next mobile apoptosis and proliferation in IECs. (biomasswars.com)
  • In this part of interphase, the cell synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for subsequent steps leading to mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • During G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins (Known as histones) that are required for DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the required proteins and growth are complete, the cell enters the next phase of the cell cycle, S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most TPR-containing proteins are associated with multiprotein complexes, and there is extensive evidence indicating that TPR motifs are important to the functioning of chaperone, cell-cycle, transcription, and protein transport complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interactions with cytoskeletal proteins and a kinase substrate suggest a role for this protein in vesicular trafficking or organelle transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone H2B is one of the 5 main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules. (cram.com)
  • Profiling novel sulfonamide antitumor agents with cell-based phenotypic screens and array-based gene expression analysis. (naver.com)
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to the pacemaker neurons, in which the circadian oscillations of clock gene expression what time should you take spironolactone self-sustained for many days in DD, oscillations in the peripheral clocks decline after several cycles in DD. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleolar antigen expressed in proliferating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • In patients diagnosed with melanoma, about 40-60% carry mutations in BRAF [ 4 ], which can lead to increased cellular proliferation and increased oncogenic cell activity [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of HAP1 in HD pathogenesis may involve aberration of cell cycle processes, as high immunostaining of HAP1 during the cell cycle has been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • MAJOR CANCER BREAKTHROUGH: Scientists Find Plant That Kills 98% Of Cancer Cells In Just 16 Hours! (unews.top)
  • This finding is significant with regard to the stem cell origin of skin cancer, since carcinogen-targeted stem cells can remain dormant for many years until recruited to develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • After Fas stimulation, Daxx is activated and plays its role of pro-apoptotic protein in activating the c-JUN-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent cells
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulators
  • Ferroptosis is a kind of regulated cell loss of life driven by oxidative damage promoting lipid peroxidation, although detailed molecular regulators are largely unknown. (biomasswars.com)
  • Coordinated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 and its regulators in human oral tumors. (nih.gov)
  • interphase
  • G1 phase ends when the cell moves into the S phase of interphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • G1 phase together with the S phase and G2 phase comprise the long growth period of the cell cycle called interphase that takes place before cell division in mitosis (M phase). (wikipedia.org)
  • During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASK1 will be transported to the nucleus when UV-irradiation is used to treat the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Objective Enhanced adhesive signaling including activation from the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) can be a hallmark of fibroblasts from lung fibrosis patients, and FAK continues to be therefore hypothesized to be always a key mediator of the disease. (biomasswars.com)
  • moderate
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • progenitor
  • Background Human being fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) might deliver a cells source for medication testing and regenerative cell therapy to take care of Parkinsons disease. (biomasswars.com)
  • replication
  • What patient types is the DNA open (cell replication is rapidly occuring)? (cram.com)
  • The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • metabolism
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • Gilmour provided the first evidence that elevated epidermal levels of polyamines alone can positively affect the recruitment of bulge stem cells in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the study, reporter mice were used to track stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogene
  • Therefore, if the oncogene or set of oncogenes contributing maximally to a tumor cell's survival can be identified, such oncogene(s) are the most appropriate target(s) for maximizing tumor cell kill. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and thereby, to predict which oncogene(s) are the most appropriate target(s) for maximizing tumor cell kill. (biomedcentral.com)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • determines
  • A proper balance between Bcl-2 and Bax determines cell survival and cell death. (hindawi.com)
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)