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  • pathway
  • Other groups have reported that overexpression of HER-2 induced androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells and activated AR transcriptional function through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway or the Akt pathway ( 5 - 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genetic experiments in Drosophila ( 11 ) and Caenorhabditis elegans ( 12 ) and biochemical experiments in vertebrates ( 10 ) have shown that Shp2 acts upstream of the Ras/MAP kinase pathway to promote its activation. (pnas.org)
  • Blockade
  • 5 , 6 Blockade of ErbB-receptor-initiated cell signaling in glial cells wrapping either myelinated or nonmyelinated nerves produces unique sensory dysfunctions. (asahq.org)
  • induces
  • 2 Sciatic nerve constrictive injury induces demyelination and is a source of pathologic ectopic firing leading to mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. (asahq.org)
  • proliferation
  • Collectively, these results suggest that Tid1 modulates the uncontrolled proliferation of ErbB-2-overexpressing carcinoma cells by reducing ErbB-2 expression and as a result suppresses the ErbB-2-dependent cancerous signaling and tumor progression. (nih.gov)
  • This ultimately results in down-regulation of many cellular processes including proliferation, survival, migration, and adhesion ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • VEGFR-2 is considered to be the dominant signaling receptor for endothelial cell permeability, proliferation, and differentiation (7) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The androgen receptor (AR) likely plays a key role in this progression and in the continued survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells in the low androgen environment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • growth factor receptors
  • Several direct targets of Shp2 have been identified, including the platelet-derived growth factor receptors [PDGFR ( 13 )/Torso ( 14 )], the multiadaptor protein Gab1 ( 15 ), Csk-binding protein [Cbp/PAG ( 16 )], and paxillin ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, mutated active forms of Janus kinases or the actions of mutated activated growth factor receptors through autocrine loops cause constitutive activation of the STAT1/STAT3/STAT5 transcription factors that promote the malignant phenotype. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • afatinib
  • The activity of afatinib in both first-line and relapsed/refractory settings may reflect its ability to irreversibly inhibit all ErbB family members. (springer.com)
  • targets
  • Thus pharmaceutical companies, attacking these kinases as drugable targets, have developed several FDA-approved agents in the hope of reducing the negative sequelae of arthritis and of semi-tumorigenic myelo-proliferative disorders: Jakafi and Xeljanz, respectively ( 1 - 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • gene
  • DDT and its metabolites alter gene expression in human uterine cell lines through estrogen receptor-independent mechanisms. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The herstatin mRNA is expressed in normal human fetal kidney and liver, but is at reduced levels relative to p185HER-2 mRNA in carcinoma cells that contain an amplified HER-2 gene. (prospecbio.com)
  • inhibits
  • Furthermore, PHPS1 efficiently inhibits activation of Erk1/2 by the leukemia-associated Shp2 mutant, Shp2-E76K, and blocks the anchorage-independent growth of a variety of human tumor cell lines. (pnas.org)
  • Janus
  • Immune cell activation in general and particularly during rheumatoid arthritis progression requires signaling by Janus kinases (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • survival
  • LUX-Lung 1 and 2 have demonstrated, within their respective target groups, a significant increase in the disease control rate of 58 and 86%, respectively, and significant prolongation of progression-free survival. (passionchemical.com)
  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States ( 1 ) and worldwide, with a 5-year survival rate of only 15% for all stages combined ( 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • estrogen receptor
  • The selection of patients for tumor-specific therapies using molecular/biological properties of the patient's tumor has been a long tradition in breast cancer (e.g., estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER-2/ neu ) but has not been widely accepted in lung cancer therapy selection ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)