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  • ADPKD
  • ADPKD accounts for more than 5 percent of cases of end-stage renal disease in Europe and North America. (uptodate.com)
  • ADPKD affects approximately 300,000 to 600,000 individuals nationwide without gender or racial predisposition, 1 and it accounts for approximately 4.7% of cases of end-stage renal disease in the United States. (aafp.org)
  • cause
  • Nicotine and other chemicals in cigarettes and cigars can cause lung and kidney damage. (drugs.com)