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  • Measures
  • Using a repeated-measures design on a large study sample, our purpose was to determine whether ovarian cycle-phase affects maximal exercise performance (V̇ O 2 max ) in women who had lived at an altitude of 3600 m since birth or early childhood. (biologists.org)
  • Methods
  • Practical and comprehensive, Cell Cycle Synchronization: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition is a valuable resource for PhD students and postdoctoral fellows, and researchers interested in general science, pharmacy, medicine and public health, computer science, and life sciences. (springer.com)
  • regulate cell
  • Since the most important change in an organism through time is the chemical reactions that result in a single cell developing into a multicellular organism, whatever controls these chemical reactions that regulate cell growth, development, and death, is believed to control aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescence
  • to cell-cycle, what the factors could be to induce senescence? (bio.net)
  • I am interested in learing senescence, apoptosos and cell-cycle. (bio.net)
  • When the HPG axis becomes unbalanced, cellular growth and development is dysregulated, and cell death and dysfunction can occur, both of which can initiate senescence, the accumulated damage to cells, tissues, and organs that occurs with the passage of time and that is associated with functional loss during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduction in the division and production of stem cells protects against cancer while increasing the risks associated with cellular senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, activation of p16 through the ROS pathway, DNA damage, or senescence leads to the buildup of p16 in tissues and is implicated in aging of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • quiescent
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cell progresses through G1, depending on internal and external conditions, it can either delay G1, enter a quiescent state known as G0, or proceed past the restriction point. (wikipedia.org)
  • flow cytometry
  • Similar cell cycle compartments are also recognized by multiparameter analysis that includes measurement of expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1, each in relation to DNA content Concurrent measurement of DNA content and of incorporation of DNA precursor 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) by flow cytometry is an especially useful assay, that has been widely used in analysis of the cell cycle in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Unfortunately, several difficulties have prevented realiza- tion of the early promise of cell cycle analysis: Proliferative patterns of the normal and malignant tissues have been found to be substantially more complex than originally an- ticipated, and synchronization of human tumors has proved remarkably difficult. (springer.com)
  • By contrast, miR-200 has been shown to promote the last step of metastasis in which migrating cancer cells undergo MET during their colonization at distant tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • The Cignal E2F Reporter Assay Kit is designed to monitor the activity of E2F-regulated signaling pathways in cultured cells. (qiagen.com)
  • Cdc42 in turn regulates signaling pathways that control diverse cellular functions including morphology, migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • First, a growth factor must bind to its receptor on the cell membrane . (britannica.com)
  • Most fluorescent DNA dyes (one of exceptions is Hoechst 33342) are not plasma membrane permeant, that is, unable to pass through an intact cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower-temperature fuel cell types such as the proton exchange membrane fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell, and alkaline fuel cell require pure hydrogen as fuel, typically produced from external reforming of natural gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase of the cell cycle
  • This system acts like a timer, or a clock, which sets a fixed amount of time for the cell to spend in each phase of the cell cycle, while at the same time it also responds to information received from the processes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons typically remain in G0, a nondividing, nonreplicating phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • DNA methylation of the mir-200c/mir-141 promoter occurs aberrantly in certain aggressive carcinoma cells that are of epithelial origin, but have undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition and have the mir-200 family silenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Although beneficial for the viral life cycle, virus-mediated alterations in normal cell cycle control mechanisms could have detrimental effects on cellular physiology and may ultimately contribute to pathologies associated with the viral infection, including cell transformation and cancer progression and maintenance. (springer.com)
  • Multiparameter analysis of the cell cycle includes, in addition to measurement of cellular DNA content, other cell cycle related constituents/features. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • For a stimulatory signal to reach the nucleus and "turn on" cell division, four main steps must occur. (britannica.com)
  • Third, this activation must stimulate a signal to be transmitted, or transduced, from the receptor at the cell surface to the nucleus within the cell. (britannica.com)
  • In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • division
  • Cell cycle , the ordered sequence of events that occur in a cell in preparation for cell division . (britannica.com)
  • All organisms must control their cell division. (springer.com)
  • Unicellular organisms have to coordinate nuclear division, cytokinesis (cell separation) and DNA synthesis so that the correct order of events is maintained (1, 2). (springer.com)
  • Nurse P (1975) Genetic control of cell size and cell division in yeast. (springer.com)
  • cell-division and let the cells become senescent? (bio.net)
  • Precise activation and inactivation of CDKs at specific points in the cell cycle are required for orderly cell division. (genome.jp)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is when the loose DNA starts to gather to form chromatid, the DNA copies itself, the spindle fibers start to form, and the cell prepares itself for cell division. (mixbook.com)
  • All living organisms are products of repeated rounds of cell growth and division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, the absence of cyclin A1 commits the neuron to division, but the cell lacks the ability to re-differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle hypothesis of AD proposes that the disease is caused by aberrant re-entry of different neuronal populations into the cell division cycle, following a 2-hit hypothesis (Nagy et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shugoshin is a crucial target of Bub1 kinase that plays a central role in the cohesion of chromosomes during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • In this chapter, I will attempt to describe these fundamental mechanisms that control the cell cycle, and to relate them to the etiology of cancer development. (springer.com)
  • Quantification of the proliferative characteristics of normal and malignant cells has been of interest to oncolo- gists and cancer biologists for almost three decades. (springer.com)
  • I experienced a sense of wholeness that the extraordinary diversity of life was built on common principles, and that this advance in understanding of how the cell-cycle was regulated would have many implications for the reproduction, growth and development of all living organisms, and for diseases like cancer. (springer.com)
  • Homozygous deletion of p16 are frequently found in esophageal cancer and gastric cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a series of mouse mammary isogenic cancer cell lines, the miR-200 family is highly expressed only in the cells that are able to form metastases (4T1 cells) but not in other cells which are unable to colonize (4TO7 cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • During EMT, cells lose adhesion and increase in motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockdown of miR-141 and miR200b has been shown to reduce E-cadherin expression thus increasing cell motility and inducing EMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • for example, by allowing identi- fication of rapidly proliferating tumors against which cell cycle-specific agents could be used with maximum effec- tiveness and by allowing rational scheduling of cell cyc- specific therapeutic agents to maximize the therapeutic ratio. (springer.com)
  • Human tumors of the same type have proved highly variable, and the cytokinetic tools available for cell cycle analysis have been labor intensive, as well as somewhat subjective and in many cases inapplicable to humans. (springer.com)
  • spindle fibers
  • The duplicated chromosomes become aligned in the center of the cell, spindle fibers attach themselves to the centromere of the chromosomes. (mixbook.com)
  • eukaryotes
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • metastasis
  • By contrast, miR-200 has been shown to promote the last step of metastasis in which migrating cancer cells undergo MET during their colonization at distant tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • temporarily
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • division cycle
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Similar cell cycle compartments are also recognized by multiparameter analysis that includes measurement of expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1, each in relation to DNA content Concurrent measurement of DNA content and of incorporation of DNA precursor 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) by flow cytometry is an especially useful assay, that has been widely used in analysis of the cell cycle in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The G1 checkpoint, also known as the restriction point in mammalian cells and the start point in yeast, is the point at which the cell becomes committed to entering the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • The formation of the cyclin E-CDK2 complex then promotes a positive feedback loop which creates an "all or nothing" switch from which the cell can not return. (wikipedia.org)
  • thereby
  • This is thought to be an evolutionary conserved mechanism that allows organisms to suppress HPG axis signaling and reproduction, thereby conserving reproductive resources (germ cells) for a later time when the environment is better suited to raising offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer cell
  • In a series of mouse mammary isogenic cancer cell lines, the miR-200 family is highly expressed only in the cells that are able to form metastases (4T1 cells) but not in other cells which are unable to colonize (4TO7 cells). (wikipedia.org)