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  • dietary intake
  • This study suggests the need to strengthen interventions to produce longer term changes in dietary intake and helps to identify specific behaviors associated with weight gain over time in young adults. (springer.com)
  • Dietary intake was repeatedly assessed at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up with a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. (springer.com)
  • Dietary intake data were collected with food-frequency questionnaires at baseline of three sub-cohorts of RS (RS-I-1: 1989-1993, RS-II-1: 2000-2001, RS-III-1: 2006-2008). (springer.com)
  • anthropometric, blood pressure, dietary intake and physical activity measurements and biochemical markers of health were measured every three months. (biomedcentral.com)
  • saturated fats
  • In the past, emphasis on the relationship between nutritional practices and these metabolic diseases has focused largely on the intake of certain types of fat (e.g., saturated fats and trans fat) [ 9 ], as well as overall caloric consumption. (mdpi.com)
  • fructose
  • Recently, dietary sugars have also come under scrutiny because of epidemiologic studies suggesting a possible link between intake of fructose containing sugars such as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and sucrose and risk factors for CVD [ 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ] and components of the MetS [ 11 , 14 , 15 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Intake of beverages with excess free fructose (EFF), including apple juice, and HFCS sweetened fruit drinks and soft drinks, has been associated with asthma in children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EFF intake has increased in recent decades, and intakes may exceed dosages associated with adult fructose malabsorption in subsets of the population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusions
  • Overall, the WCRF/AICR review panel concluded that the evidence was too sparse and inconsistent to draw any conclusions on the association between tea intake and pancreatic cancer risk ( 46 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • food
  • Baseline intake of 28 pre-defined food groups was determined using a validated food frequency questionnaire. (springer.com)
  • As expected, the CCK1R antagonist, devazepide, failed to stimulate food intake in the Cck1r −/− rats. (physiology.org)
  • These effects were accompanied by increased food intake, total spontaneous activity, and energy expenditure during the dark cycle and an apparent reduction in respiratory quotient during the light cycle. (physiology.org)
  • To assess whether enhanced responsiveness to anorexigenic factors may contribute to the lean phenotype, we examined the effects of melanotan II (MTII) on food intake and body weight. (physiology.org)
  • We found an enhanced effect of MTII in Cck1r −/− rats to suppress food intake and body weight following both central and peripheral administration. (physiology.org)
  • Characterization studies with selective CCK1R agonists and antagonists have provided evidence in support of this receptor subtype mediating the effects of exogenous and endogenous CCK to inhibit food intake. (physiology.org)
  • CCK-8, which binds with nearly equal affinity to both CCK1R and CCK2R ( 19 ), fails to inhibit food intake and induce c-Fos (marker of neuronal activation) in the hindbrain following pretreatment with selective CCK1R antagonists ( 37 , 44 ), whereas selective CCK2R antagonists are ineffective ( 37 ). (physiology.org)
  • Importantly, CCK1R antagonist administration stimulates food intake ( 37 , 44 ), through a specific increase in meal size ( 36 ), thereby providing compelling support for a physiological role of endogenous CCK action at CCK1R in the regulation of food intake. (physiology.org)
  • More recently, CCK1R ablation ( 7 , 9 , 18 , 25 , 26 , 30 , 35 ) in both rats and mice, as well as replenishment of CCK1R into specific brain sites ( 56 ) in rats have confirmed the importance of CCK1R in the regulation of food intake, but questions remain as to whether CCK1Rs play a universal role in the regulation of body weight across species. (physiology.org)
  • Some diahitcomponents that provide little or no food energy, such as water, minerals, vitamins, cholesterol and fiber, may still be necessary to health and survival for other reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, ruminants can extract food energy from the respiration of cellulose because of bacteria in their rumens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theoretically, one could measure food energy in different ways, using (say) the Gibbs free energy of combustion, or the amount of ATP generated by metabolizing the food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional food energy is based on heats of combustion in a bomb calorimeter and corrections that take into consideration the efficiency of digestion and absorption and the production of urea and other substances in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many governments require food manufacturers to label the energy content of their products, to help consumers control their energy intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the European Union, manufacturers of packaged food must label the nutritional energy of their products in both kilocalories and kilojoules, when required. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Australia and New Zealand, the food energy must be stated in kilojoules (and optionally in kilocalories as well), and other nutritional energy information is similarly conveyed in kilojoules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy available from the respiration of food is usually given on labels for 100 g, for a typical serving size (according to the manufacturer), and/or for the entire pack contents. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The amount of food energy associated with a particular food could be measured by completely burning the dried food in a bomb calorimeter, a method known as direct calorimetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FTO gene expression was also found to be significantly upregulated in the hypothalamus of rats after food deprivation and strongly negatively correlated with the expression of orexigenic galanin-like peptide which is involved in the stimulation of food intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • high energy level puppies will require more energy and may need to be fed extra amounts of food, just as lower energy puppies may require less food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore by adhering to the 9 point body condition scale, and adjusting food intake accordingly, owners will be able to maintain their puppy at an appropriate weight throughout its growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Food energy Basal metabolic rate Resting metabolic rate Harris JA, Benedict FG (1918). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gross energy (GE) of a food, as measured by bomb calorimetry is equal to the sum of the heats of combustion of the components - protein (GEp), fat (GEf) and carbohydrate (GEcho) (by difference) in the proximate system. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • dairy products
  • PWV and IMT showed an inverse association with the intake of low-fat dairy and a positive association with the intake of whole-fat dairy, so the amount of fat in dairy products can play an important role in arterial stiffness and subclinical atherosclerosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • prospective
  • Eight prospective studies and 6 case-control studies have examined the association between SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk but results have been inconclusive ( 6 , 12 , 58-67 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • higher
  • Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • cholesterol
  • Water, minerals, vitamins, and cholesterol are not broken down (they are used by the body in the form in which they are absorbed) and so cannot be used for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • association
  • Although we were only able to examine modest intake of SSB, there was a suggestive, modest positive association for risk of pancreatic cancer for intakes of SSB. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Of the limited number of studies that have examined the association between caffeine intake and pancreatic cancer risk, results have generally been null or suggestive of a weak inverse association ( 37 , 69 ). (aacrjournals.org)