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  • protein
  • Apicobasal polarity is essential for epithelial cell function and it is determined by the expression of three polarity protein complexes named Scribble, Par and Crumbs complexes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Subsequently, the absence of the CRB2 protein from these cells results in a delay in the formation of cell-cell junctions and in an increase in cell proliferation in human RPE cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Recombinant p300-Ch1 can be used for 1) protein-protein interaction assay, 2) in vitro transcription assay, 3) in vitro acetylation assay and 4) cell growth assay. (creativebiomart.net)
  • It is also a negative regulator of steroidogenesis in Leydig cells.A similar analysis was performed using total RNA extracted from purified germ cell populations to address GRTH action in individual target cells.Ingenuity pathway analysis predicted association of GRTH bound polysome genes with the ubiquitin-proteasome-heat shock protein signaling network pathway and NFκB/TP53/TGFB1 signaling networks were derived from the differentially expressed gene analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Embryos in which maternally encoded 2-OST is knocked down have normal activation of several zygotic mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm patterning genes, but have decreased deep cell adhesion and fail to initiate epiboly, which can be rescued by re-expression of 2-OST protein. (biologists.org)
  • Reduced cell adhesion and altered cell cycle regulation in 2-OST-deficient embryos are associated with decreased β-catenin and E-cadherin protein levels at cell junctions, and these defects can be rescued by reactivation of the intracellular Wnt pathway, utilizing stabilized β-catenin or dominant-negative Gsk3, but not by overexpression of Wnt8 ligand. (biologists.org)
  • Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are a family of cell surface and extracellular matrix proteins with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains covalently attached to a protein core. (biologists.org)
  • Second interconnected cluster contained categories on cell cycle, apoptosis and protein synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • In the Howard-Flanders group at Yale University, West purified and characterised RecA protein, and in doing so discovered many key aspects relating to the way that cells mediate DNA-DNA interactions and strand exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the discovery of cellular Holliday junction resolvases, West was the first to purify the human RAD51 protein (the eukaryotic ortholog of RecA), and to show that it promotes homologous pairing and strand exchange reactions similar to those mediated by RecA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase, same L protein acts as a replicase and ignore the gene junctions to generate a polycistronic anti-genomic analogue that acts as a template for further rounds of replication to generate many more copies of the genome RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • NBS1 codes for a protein (nibrin) that has two major functions: (1) to stop the cell cycle in the S phase, when there are errors in the cell DNA (2) to interact with FANCD2 that can activate the BRCA1/BRCA2 pathway of DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments have been carried out to assess the protein markers they express, in order to determine their cell-type and thus exact function in the pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first marker protein discovered in FS cells was S-100b, which is a calcium-binding protein expressed by glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some populations of FS cells have also been found to express different cell markers, including GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), cytokeratin, vimentin and fibronectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • S-100 protein and GFAP expression seem to be strongest in early, newly-formed FS cells, thus could be important in early FS cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, as FS cells express vimentin, an intermediate filament protein marker, this supports the theory that FS cells may be derived from glial neuroectodermic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mink, the presence of the connexin-43 protein that is functional in gap junctions, correlates to prolactin secretory demand depending on the breeding season. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ESAM gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein mediates microtubule nucleation and is required for microtubule formation and progression of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • Their apoptotic cells are similar to homologous to mammalian. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), also known as Berlin breakage syndrome, ataxia telangiectasia variant 1 (AT-V1) and Seemanova syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder causing chromosomal instability, probably as a result of a defect in the double Holliday junction DNA repair mechanism and/or the synthesis dependent strand annealing mechanism for repairing double strand breaks in DNA (see Homologous recombination). (wikipedia.org)
  • These individuals appear to be primarily defective in homologous recombination, a process that accurately repairs double-strand breaks, both in somatic cells and during meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • FS cells form homologous gap junctions with their adjacent counterparts, but also heterologous gap junctions with hormone-secreting endocrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • signaling pathway
  • A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Here, we provide evidence that, during apical nuclear migration, VZ precursors display dynamic spontaneous Ca 2+ transients, which depend on functional gap junctions/hemichannels via ATP release and Ca 2+ -mobilizing messenger diffusion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cells require a full and functional cellular machinery to live. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments using two main FS cell lines (TtT/GF and Tpit/F1), have hugely improved our knowledge of the functional relevance of these cells- it has been shown that FS cells play a part in three areas of pituitary use: autocrine/paracrine control of anterior pituitary cell function though the use of cytokines and growth factors, intrapituitary communication among various cell types, and modulation of inflammatory response feedback. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • We have developed a novel in vitro system to model how shear force and transient interaction with endothelial cells alter chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell phenotype and behavior. (bloodjournal.org)
  • To address this lack of data, we have developed a dynamic in vitro model in which CLL cells experience shear forces equivalent to those in capillary beds and are made to flow through capillary-like hollow fibers lined with endothelial cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • cellular
  • Mass spectrometric analysis of cellular proteome of control and induced cells identified 1802 proteins of which 105 displayed significant changes in abundance. (nih.gov)
  • Larger of these networks contained several signaling networks involved in cellular movement, cell-cell contact and cytoskeletal reorganization. (nih.gov)
  • The OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms exhibited different cellular localizations in the epidermal cells: in contrast to OsCYP19-4.1, the OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3 proteins were primarily targeted to guard and subsidiary cells, whereas OsCYP19-4.5, which consists largely of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting signal, was co-localized with the RFP-BiP marker in the ER. (mdpi.com)
  • A coenocyte (from Greek: κοινός (koinós) = "common" + κύτος (kýtos) = "box, i.e. cell") is a multinucleate cell which can result from multiple nuclear divisions without their accompanying cytokinesis, in contrast to a syncytium, which results from cellular aggregation followed by dissolution of the cell membranes inside the mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain mutations and the activation of certain cell-cycle control genes can lead to bacteria forming "filament-like" cells with multiple chromosomes but without cellular division. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • In von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene cause clear cell renal carcinomas, hemangioblastomas, and pheochromocytomas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the first one, first messenger cross through the cell membrane, binding and activating intracellular receptors localized at nucleus or cytosol, which then act as transcriptional factors regulating directly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor
  • Tumor-infiltrating neutrophil (TIN) has been reported to be an independent predictor in multiple tumors, but its role in the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) remains unclear. (springer.com)
  • Tangeretin also counteracts tumor suppression of gap junction intercellular signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • The high susceptibility to benign and malignant diseases is in part a consequence of the cycling hormonal growth stimulation resulting in a high cell turnover and accumulation of defects and complicated hormonal equilibrium which is highly sensible to disturbance. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • We have used our model to investigate chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell migration and have determined the critical role for integrin α4β1 in this process. (bloodjournal.org)
  • To date, most in vitro studies of migration have been confined to static cultures using transwell plates, which are devoid of vascular shear force and the influence of endothelial cell interactions. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The basal phase of interkinetic migration is much slower and appears to be mediated passively by mechanical forces after cell division. (jneurosci.org)
  • Renal
  • Donskov F, von der Maase H. Impact of immune parameters on long-term survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Wild-type and various mutant VHL proteins representing VHL disease subtypes were stably expressed in 3 VHL-negative renal carcinoma cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Type 2 mutations demonstrated an epithelial morphology similar to wild-type VHL in the majority of the renal cell lines used. (biomedcentral.com)
  • phenotype
  • The mutants of other let-7 family members have a radio-resistant phenotype in vulval cells, which may be related to their ability to repress RAS. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In in vitro studies, tangeretin appears to counteract some of the adaptations of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ cells
  • GRTH transports relevant mRNAs from nucleus to cytoplasmic sites of meiotic and haploid germ cells and associates with actively translating polyribosomes. (nih.gov)
  • mRNA levels
  • In a twist, there are let-7-binding sites in MYC 3' untranslated region(UTR) according to bioinformatic analysis, and let-7 overexpression in cell culture decreased MYC mRNA levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA levels of FS cells has been investigated via laser capture microdissection and RT-PCR, so progress is being made in terms of understanding the expression and function of these non-endocrine cells of the pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Biology of the Cell / Under the Auspices of the European Cell Biology Organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • GRE Subject Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology was a standardized exam provided by ETS (Educational Testing Service) that was discontinued in December 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fact has been used in certain synthetic biology applications, for example to create cell-derived fibers for an organically grown concrete. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulator
  • It is also a negative regulator of steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. (nih.gov)
  • Let-7 has been demonstrated to be a direct regulator of RAS expression in human cells All the three RAS genes in human, K-, N-, and H-, have the predicted let-7 binding sequences in their 3'UTRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The egg cell cytoplasm contains localized mRNA molecules such as those that encode the transcription factors Bicoid and Nanos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Precursors
  • Although the levels of mature let-7 members are undetectable in undifferentiated cells, the primary transcripts and the hairpin precursors of let-7 are present in these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • As one of the four genes involved in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells reprogramming, LIN28 expression is reciprocal to that of mature let-7. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • We have recently described the expression of one of these Crumbs proteins named CRB2 in the RPE cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • To achieve this goal, we have studied the temporal sequence of the establishment of the polarity proteins during human fetal RPE cells polarization. (arvojournals.org)
  • We have found that CRB2 is the latest of the entire pull of polarity proteins to be positioned at the cell membrane. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, maintenance of long-lived cells involves proteins such as SDLAGL that are highly similar to yeast and human homologs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accumulation of adequate amounts of viral proteins within infected cells through viral transcription and subsequent translation potentiate the onset of viral replicative cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • unclear
  • The extent to which epiboly is driven by forces pulling the EVL downwards compared with the expansion forces of the deep cells is still unclear. (biologists.org)
  • adjacent
  • Gap junctions can be seen between the FS cells and the adjacent endocrine cells when viewed under an electron microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gap junctions that exist between adjacent FS cells are used to propagate calcium-mediated signals throughout the pituitary to coordinate the function of excitable endocrine cells distributed throughout the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bipolar plate, conductive plate in a fuel cell stack that acts as an anode for one cell and a cathode for the adjacent cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The enzyme plays important roles in the life cycle of the P1 Bacteriophage such as cyclization of the linear genome and resolution of dimeric chromosomes that form after DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Gaseous - can be widespread through cell membrane and cytosol, including nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) is a fast ion conductor material used as a membrane in several types of molten salt electrochemical cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • This ensures that cytokinesis, which divides the cell between the separating chromosomes, maintains epithelial architecture by directing formation of two equal-sized daughter cells in the plane of the epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • inhibits
  • purified LPG, the complete parasite inhibits the respiratory burst in C57BL/6 macrophages, albeit to a lesser degree than observed for BALB/c cells. (a-inhibitor.com)
  • nuclear
  • Since the formation of the laminar cerebral cortex depends on temporarily coordinated production of neurons in the VZ/SVZ, which requires a precise control of cell cycles, it is particularly important to learn more about the mechanism of apical nuclear translocation. (jneurosci.org)
  • embryos
  • Many insects, such as the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, lay eggs that initially develop as "syncytial" blastoderms, i.e. early on the embryos exhibit incomplete cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • A similar analysis was performed using total RNA extracted from purified germ cell populations to address GRTH action in individual target cells. (nih.gov)
  • mechanism
  • Tangeretin strengthens the cell wall and acts as a plant's defensive mechanism against disease-causing pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Here, we demonstrate that, in differentiating cultures of RPE cells, CRB2 functions in a late stage in the formation of the junctional complex and apicobasal polarity. (arvojournals.org)
  • epithelial
  • Lamellipodia are found primarily in very mobile cells, for example the keratinocytes of fish and frogs, which are involved in the quick repair of wounds, crawling at speeds of 10-20 μm / min over epithelial surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8). (cellsignal.com)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain mutations and the activation of certain cell-cycle control genes can lead to bacteria forming "filament-like" cells with multiple chromosomes but without cellular division. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses are designed to replicate and spread into the tumor, resulting in cancer cell lysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • synchronous
  • C) Rad51 focus formation during meiosis I. Wild-type (HY3140) and PCLB2-BRN1 (HY2826) cells were induced to undergo synchronous meiosis. (nih.gov)
  • In many organisms including Xenopus and Drosophila, the mid-blastula transition usually occurs after a particular number of cell divisions for a given species, and is defined by the ending of the synchronous cell division cycles of the early blastula development, and the lengthening of the cell cycles by the addition of the G1 and G2 phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • During the blastula stage of development, a significant amount of activity occurs within the early embryo to establish cell polarity, cell specification, axis formation, and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seedling infection near the hypocotyl-root junction (just below the soil line) then occurs in the early spring following overwintering of Alternaria dauci mycelium or conidia. (wikipedia.org)
  • As penetration occurs, Alternaria dauci will produce a chemical known as phytotoxin zinniol, which degrades cell membranes and chloroplasts, ultimately leading to the chlorotic symptoms characteristic of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein levels
  • Interestingly, PIO significantly downregulated the protein levels of p53 and cyclin D1 in J82 cells, but not NUTE cells after more than 192 hours of treatment. (medsci.org)
  • tissues
  • However, PIO did not alter the growth of cells from other tissues. (medsci.org)
  • By manipulating the cell signals during the blastula stage of development, various tissues can be formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • known
  • We tested the EF-1 alpha version in Jurkat cells, a cell line known to show reduced expression and clonal variation in expression from CMV-based vectors. (clontech.com)
  • Glial cells (also known as glia or neuroglia) come in several types, and perform a number of critical functions, including structural support, metabolic support, insulation, and guidance of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual reproduction of Alternaria dauci is not known to occur, and the disease is most active during spring, summer, and autumn cropping cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1956, Francis Crick proposed what is now known as the "central dogma" of biology: DNA encodes the genetic information required for an organism to carry out its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specification
  • The study of the blastula and of cell specification has many implications on the field of stem cell research as well as the continued improvement of fertility treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • create
  • Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of two different types of materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fact has been used in certain synthetic biology applications, for example to create cell-derived fibers for an organically grown concrete. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibers
  • This unravels the short tail fibers (STF) that bind irreversibly to the E. coli cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • This means that in these cell types long term tetracycline inducible expression can be achieved. (clontech.com)
  • PIO decreased the expression of p53 and cyclin D1 in J82 cells after long-term culture, which suggested that PIO may be helpful for diabetic patients with bladder cancer. (medsci.org)
  • vascular
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • thereby
  • These bacteriophage infect a host cell with their information and then blow up the host cell, thereby propagating themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graphene has also been reported to be efficiently taking up cancerous cells thereby enabling the design of drug delivery agents for cancer therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Yeast diploid cells were induced to undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores, which were enclosed in tetrads. (nih.gov)
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • applications
  • In refrigeration applications, thermoelectric junctions have about 1/4th the efficiency compared to conventional means (they offer around 10-15% efficiency of the ideal Carnot cycle refrigerator, compared with 40-60% achieved by conventional compression-cycle systems (reverse Rankine systems using compression/expansion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential graphene applications include lightweight, thin, flexible, yet durable display screens, electric/photonics circuits, solar cells, and various medical, chemical and industrial processes enhanced or enabled by the use of new graphene materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • This indicates that Sulfolobus has a TCA cycle system similar to that found in mitochondria of eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rac and Cdc42 are two Rho-family GTPases which are normally cytosolic but can also be found in the cell membrane under certain conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • establish
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • Human
  • The length of an axon can be extraordinary: for example, if a pyramidal cell, (an excitatory neuron) of the cerebral cortex were magnified so that its cell body became the size of a human body, its axon, equally magnified, would become a cable a few centimeters in diameter, extending more than a kilometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • ectoderm
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • Background: Pluripotency is the ability of a cell to differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers, the endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm. (cellsignal.com)
  • progenitor
  • Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. (jci.org)
  • Disease
  • The disease cycle begins when fungus overwinters on or in host seed and in soil-borne debris from carrot. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following harvest in the fall, Alternaria dauci will persist in remaining carrot debris in the soil or be concentrated in infected seedlings, and the disease cycle will be repeated. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • These germination tubes will pierce host cell walls to initiate infection, or if wounds are present the pathogen may enter in that manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • The property that makes neurons unique is their ability to send signals to specific target cells over long distances. (wikipedia.org)
  • They send these signals by means of an axon, which is a thin protoplasmic fiber that extends from the cell body and projects, usually with numerous branches, to other areas, sometimes nearby, sometimes in distant parts of the brain or body. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • In F9 cells lacking both β-catenin and plakoglobin, very little E-cadherin and α-catenin accumulated at the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Components
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)