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  • GLUT
  • The same group later identified the target of these antibodies as the GLUT-2, as indicated by selective inhibition of glucose uptake in GLUT-2 transfected cell line after incubation with patients' sera (2). (ifcc.org)
  • These two contributing factors to insulin resistance involve the GLUT-4 glucose transporter and Beta-cell failure. (wordpress.com)
  • It is unclear whether the research indicates that GLUT-4 defects and beta-cell failure are both required to cause hyperglycemia, or eventually cause type-2 diabetes. (wordpress.com)
  • Insulin resistance then continues to increase due to the impairments in GLUT-4 translocation potentially caused by increased Serum RBP4 levels, and/or the loss of Beta-cells due to increased apoptosis and/or decreased islet formation. (wordpress.com)
  • Similarly, the mechanism behind impaired GLUT-4 translocation is also unclear, although other studies strongly indicate that elevation in free fatty acids decrease glucose transport and impair PI(3)K in skeletal muscle.4 The elevation in free fatty acids were associated with increased levels of serum RBP4, which were inversely correlated with GLUT-4 functioning. (wordpress.com)
  • development of type 2 diabet
  • Growing evidences show that β -cells are central to the development of type 2 diabetes [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In humans, low levels of HDL, which is the predominant acceptor of cellular cholesterol, is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes ( 3 ) and is associated with β-cell dysfunction ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A flowchart for the management of DKA in children and adolescents from the ADA guideline is shown in Figure 2.3 A growing problem is the development of type 2 diabetes in obese children. (amazonaws.com)
  • PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) are environmental pollutants that have been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, however, the precise mechanisms are not clear. (isletclub.org)
  • Potential bene?ts of the intake of ?sh on the development of type 2 diabetes could be attributed to its high content of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, speci?cally eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). (amazonaws.com)
  • Development of type 2 diabetes is associated with increased levels of lipids, which places diabetic patients at an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • concentration
  • In fact, when islets prepared from type 2 diabetic donors were studied after a 24-hour incubation in culture medium containing 5.5 mM glucose and therapeutical concentration of metformin, the volume of mature insulin granules increased from 1.9 ± 0.5 to 3.4 ± 0.3%, which was similar to the value in nondiabetic β-cells (3.2 ± 0.7%) . (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Genome-wide association studies has shown that specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the melatonin receptor 2 (MTNR1B) locus is linked with an increased blood glucose concentration and type 2 diabetes ( 8 - 13 ). (scielo.br)
  • Phosphorylated by the SAPK2 pathway at high intracellular glucose concentration. (abcam.com)
  • insulin and alpha and beta cells in the pancreases islets Blood sugar concentration is regulated for a number of reason amongst which: Osmosis. (scribd.com)
  • Explain the control of blood glucose concentration. (scribd.com)
  • apoptosis
  • The reduction in CD11b+ macrophages and IFN-γ-producing T cells was due to reduced proliferative expansion and not to enhanced apoptosis or to altered distribution of these cells between spleen, blood, and the lymphatic system. (jci.org)
  • In primary β-cell cultures from WT mice, S100B induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RAGE-dependent apoptosis. (ovid.com)
  • 8 However, the over-production of insulin itself by these Beta-cells could contribute to the apoptosis discussed earlier. (wordpress.com)
  • The mechanisms behind increased apoptosis and decreased islet formation are only being speculated at this point in research. (wordpress.com)
  • tissues
  • Cells of almost all solid tissues are connected with gap junctions which permit the direct transfer of ions and small molecules, integral to regulating coordinated function in the tissue. (science20.com)
  • At first when cells in the muscle, fat and other tissues become less responsive to insulin, Beta-cells try to keep up by producing more and more insulin.8 This excess insulin in the blood can cause a bout of hypoglycemia, which is a marker for type-2 diabetes. (wordpress.com)
  • Respiration: Some tissues are entirely dependent on blood sugar as a respiratory substrate being unable to either store glucose of metabolise fat. (scribd.com)
  • antigens
  • A consensus has been achieved in the type 1 diabetes research community that the most reliable assays are those based on the immunoprecipitation of radio-labelled recombinant antigens expressed either in anin vitrosystem, like rabbit reticulocytes, orin vivo, as a more cumbersome alternative, in a eukaryotic cell system, like recombinant baculovirus infected insect cell lines. (ifcc.org)
  • regulation
  • Particularly involved in glucose-dependent regulation of insulin gene transcription. (genecards.org)
  • In the attempt to control the rise of type 2 diabetes, new treatments such as these 11β-HSD1 inhibitors and others that focus on mechanisms relating to cortisol regulation may have favorable results. (kon.org)
  • neurons
  • In excitable cells such as neurons, cardiac myocytes and smooth muscles, gap junctions provide efficient low-resistance pathways through which membrane voltage changes can be shared across the tissue. (science20.com)
  • Glucose-induced excitation of hypothalamic neurons requires glucose phosphorylation, ATP production by glucose oxidation, and subsequent closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels that induces a membrane depolarization (reviewed in Refs. (physiology.org)
  • T2DM
  • The amount of insulin granules in β-cells from human subjects with T2DM has been investigated by electron microscopy, showing an average 30 - 40% reduction versus control samples, due to a lower number of mature granules [18, (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • It is therefore possible that a proportion of β-cells in T2DM islets may not be detectable by standard immunohistochemistry staining due to insulin degranulation, potentially leading to an overestimation of β-cell loss. (diabetesincontrol.com)