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  • biosynthesis
  • They have many other functions including catalysis as illustrated by aconitase, generation of radicals as illustrated by SAM-dependent enzymes, and as sulfur donors in the biosynthesis of lipoic acid and biotin. (wikipedia.org)
  • cofactor
  • A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. (uniprot.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction [Methyl-Co(III) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + tetrahydrofolate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } a [Co(I) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + 5-methyltetrahydrofolate This enzyme catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from the N5 position of methyltetrahydrofolate to the 5-methoxybenzimidazolylcobamide cofactor of a corrinoid/Fe-S protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction: [methyl-Co(III) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + tetrahydrosarcinapterin ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } [Co(I) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + 5-methyltetrahydrosarcinapterin This enzyme catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from the cobamide cofactor of a corrinoid/Fe-S protein to the N5 group of tetrahydrosarcinapterin. (wikipedia.org)
  • plastocyanin is an electron carrier that transfers the electron from cytochrome b6f to the P700 cofactor of PS I. The Ycf4 protein domain is found on the thylakoid membrane and is vital to photosystem I. This thylakoid transmembrane protein helps assemble the components of photosystem I, without it, photosynthesis would be inefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for a protein's biological activity to happen. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, "prosthetic group" emphasizes the nature of the binding of a cofactor to a protein (tight or covalent) and, thus, refers to a structural property. (wikipedia.org)
  • The iron-sulfur (4Fe-4S) cofactor is held in place by the sulfur atoms on Cys385, Cys448, and Cys451, which are bind to three of the four available iron atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • These results suggest that chloroplast stroma thylakoids contain a protein similar in size and antigenicity to, but genetically distinct from, the mitochondrial subunit. (lu.se)
  • The POLD1/p125 subunit encodes both DNA polymerizing and exonuclease domains, which provide the protein an important second function in proofreading to ensure replication accuracy during DNA synthesis, and in a number of types of replication-linked DNA repair following DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • cofactors
  • Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. (uniprot.org)
  • These proteins are enzymes, and cofactors can be considered "helper molecules" that assist in biochemical transformations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, cofactors were defined as an additional substance apart from protein and substrate that is required for enzyme activity and a prosthetic group as a substance that undergoes its whole catalytic cycle attached to a single enzyme molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • scaffold
  • In a scaffold complex protein to form large molecular assemblies that store Fe(III) and 4Fe-4S seen as secondary to defects inactivated to accomplish its functions as physiologically relevant form(s) Fe/S proteins Iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) is regulated through prevents deficiencies and increased mutation rates that characterized a plant P loop NTPase with sequence similarity to Nbp35 homologue's of NUBP1. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • In the newer R/S system of designating chirality, based on the atomic numbers of atoms near the asymmetric carbon, cysteine (and selenocysteine) have R chirality, because of the presence of sulfur (resp. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Both of them have the same function, which is to facilitate the reaction of enzymes and protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term coenzyme refers specifically to enzymes and, as such, to the functional properties of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium is another special case, in that it is required as a component of the human diet, and it is needed for the full activity of many enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase, protein phosphatases, and adenylate kinase, but calcium activates these enzymes in allosteric regulation, often binding to these enzymes in a complex with calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • The PDBFlex database explores the intrinsic flexibility of protein structures by analyzing structural variations of the same protein across the archive. (rcsb.org)
  • This allows for the easy identification of regions and types of structural flexibility present in a protein of interest. (rcsb.org)
  • The thiol is susceptible to oxidization to give the disulfide derivative cystine, which serves an important structural role in many proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • The HiPIPs are small proteins which show significant variation in their sequences, their sizes (from 63 to 85 amino acids), and in their oxidation- reduction potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central iron atom changes between the +2 and +3 oxidation states. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • PsaA and PsaB are both integral membrane proteins of 730 to 750 amino acids that seem to contain 11 transmembrane segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Another theory is that, in diabetic hearts, accelerated phosphorylation of heart aconitase by protein kinase C causes aconitase to speed up the final step of its reverse reaction relative to its forward reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annotation
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • homeostasis
  • A proposed mechanism for this connection is that decreased Fe-S activity in aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase is correlated with excess iron concentration in the mitochondria and insufficient iron in the cytoplasm, disrupting iron homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The HesB family are found in species as divergent as Homo sapiens (Human) and Haemophilus influenzae suggesting that these proteins are involved in basic cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • succinate
  • Another disease associated with aconitase is Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), which is caused when the Fe-S proteins in aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase have decreased activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • The prevalence of these proteins on the metabolic pathways of most organisms leads some scientists to theorize that iron-sulfur compounds had a significant role in the origin of life in the iron-sulfur world theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • High
  • Photosystem I (PSI) is an integral membrane protein complex that uses light energy to produce the high energy carriers ATP and NADPH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thiol group also has a high affinity for heavy metals, so that proteins containing cysteine, such as metallothionein, will bind metals such as mercury, lead and cadmium tightly. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Another regulatory element, the cell cycle element/cell cycle genes homology region (CDE/CHR), located downstream of the start site is important for POLD1 transcription in G2/M phase by E2F1 and p21 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • dioxide
  • The endoxide reacts with 3-sulfolene in a Diels-Alder reaction upon elimination of sulfur dioxide to form a tricyclic adduct, from which 2,3-dibromoanthracene is accessible in good yield. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased fuel use due to biofouling contributes to adverse environmental effects and is predicted to increase emissions of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide between 38 and 72% by 2020. (wikipedia.org)
  • salts
  • BBI salts are versatile fluorescent dyes with emission wavelengths λem between 329 and 561 nm, pronounced solvatochromism and strong solvent-dependent Stokes shift, which can be used as protein tag for fluorescent labeling of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acid
  • The palm kernel oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (its main fatty acid), has a high affinity for capillary proteins, and due to its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, it is exceptionally capable of penetrating the capillary fiber all the way to the cortex. (naturheals.com)
  • Hypochlorous acid reacts with a wide variety of biomolecules, including DNA, RNA, fatty acid groups, cholesterol and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • bromine
  • As a teaching example for electrophilic aromatic substitutions, this reaction can also be carried out in a laboratory experiment with excess bromine and iron nails (as starting material for iron (III) bromide FeBr3). (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are type I transmembrane proteins that allow organisms (including mammals) to detect microbes and initiate an innate immune response (Beutler, B., Nature 2004, 430:257-263). (allindianpatents.com)
  • It has been speculated that the original evolutionary function of hemoproteins was electron transfer in primitive sulfur-based photosynthesis pathways in ancestral cyanobacteria-like organisms before the appearance of molecular oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the detection of diatomic gases, the binding of the gas ligand to the heme iron induces conformational changes in the surrounding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • In addition, a unique sulfonamides ion linkage between the sulfur of a methionyl amino-acid residue and the heme 2-vinyl group is formed, giving this enzyme the unique capability of easily oxidizing chloride and bromide ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • As some co-factors contain both nucleotide and amino acid characteristics, it may be that amino acids, peptides and finally proteins initially were co-factors for ribozymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • This interest has been fueled in part by the recent discovery of a family of highly conserved pattern recognition receptor proteins known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) believed to be involved in innate immunity as receptors for pathogen- associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (allindianpatents.com)
  • refers
  • Cytochrome a refers to the heme A in specific combination with membrane protein forming a portion of cytochrome c oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitamins
  • Dietary supplements can be formulated to contain several different chemical elements (as compounds), a combination of vitamins and/or other chemical compounds, or a single element (as a compound or mixture of compounds), such as calcium (as calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, etc.) or magnesium (as magnesium oxide, etc.), or iron (as ferrous sulfate, iron bis-glycinate, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • binding sites
  • This binding sites where shown with 5.0 Angstroms radius around Iron atom. (atomistry.com)
  • LuxS is a homodimeric iron-dependent metalloenzyme containing two identical tetrahedral metal-binding sites similar to those found in peptidases and amidases. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • Consistent with this, it has been proposed that sulfhydryl groups of sulfur-containing amino acids can be oxidized a total of three times by three HClO molecules, with the fourth reacting with the α-amino group. (wikipedia.org)
  • life
  • The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • A receptor is a protein molecule, embedded in either the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm of a cell, to which one or more specific kinds of signalling molecules may bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • turn
  • If the RNA world existed, it was probably followed by an age characterized by the evolution of ribonucleoproteins (RNP world), which in turn ushered in the era of DNA and longer proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • While BCAAs are found in their greatest natural quantities in products such as red meat and many types of dairy, protein supplements synthesized from an egg base or whey are ideal for finding concentrated amounts. (nexgenperformance.com)
  • other important types include heme A and heme C. Isolated hemes are commonly designated by capital letters while hemes bound to proteins are designated by lower case letters. (wikipedia.org)
  • centre
  • This iron-sulphur protein is an electron carrier, and it is easy to distinguish its metallic centre changes: the oxidized state is reddish (due to a ligand metal charge transfer), while the reduced state is colourless (because the electron transition has an energy of the infrared level, which is imperceptible for the human eye). (wikipedia.org)
  • aconitase
  • Another disease associated with aconitase is Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), which is caused when the Fe-S proteins in aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase have decreased activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A proposed mechanism for this connection is that decreased Fe-S activity in aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase is correlated with excess iron concentration in the mitochondria and insufficient iron in the cytoplasm, disrupting iron homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of IRE-BP in cultured cells has revealed that the protein functions either as an active aconitase, when cells are iron-replete, or as an active RNA-binding protein, when cells are iron-depleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans express the following two aconitase isozymes: Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • The thiol group also has a high affinity for heavy metals, so that proteins containing cysteine, such as metallothionein, will bind metals such as mercury, lead and cadmium tightly. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Iron regulatory elements (IREs) constitute a family of 28-nucleotide, non-coding, stem-loop structures that regulate iron storage, heme synthesis and iron uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Photosystem I (PSI) is an integral membrane protein complex that uses light energy to produce the high energy carriers ATP and NADPH. (wikipedia.org)