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  • inhibitory
  • Most anti epileptic drugs modify synaptic transmission or neuronal excitability and act on ionotropic receptors for the main excitatory (glutamate) or inhibitory (GABA) neurotransmitters or ion channels within the mammalian CNS. (findaphd.com)
  • Electrophysiology
  • The powerful combination of electrophysiology, biochemistry, patch‐clamp fluorometry and X‐ray crystallography has begun to unravel the mystery of how CNG channels are regulated and how the binding of cyclic nucleotides lead to channel opening. (els.net)
  • The study of ion channels is known as channelomics and involves many scientific techniques such as voltage clamp electrophysiology (in particular patch clamp), immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR. (medicalxpress.com)
  • postsynaptic
  • A release of neurotransmitters across a synaptic junction, causes Na + channels on the postsynaptic (recipient) neuron membrane to open so that Na+ ions flow from the extracellular environment into this downstream neuron. (news-medical.net)
  • glutamate
  • Glutamate receptor, an excitatory cation channel of which at least three types have been described (kainate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and quisqualate) [ PMID: 15165736 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure and gating of the glutamate receptor ion channel. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor family encodes 18 gene products that coassemble to form ligand-gated ion channels containing an agonist recognition site, a transmembrane ion permeation pathway, and gating elements that couple agonist-induced conformational changes to the opening or closing of the permeation pore. (nih.gov)
  • The description of glutamate receptor structure, including its transmembrane elements, reveals a complex assembly of multiple semiautonomous extracellular domains linked to a pore-forming element with striking resemblance to an inverted potassium channel. (nih.gov)
  • electrophysiological
  • The transport of ions is essential to maintain electrophysiological balance on either side of the membrane, called osmotic balance, which is needed for signals to be transduced from their chemical (ion) form to a cellular response. (news-medical.net)
  • Contributors present electrophysiological methods to examine single-channel activity in cultured cells, to study synaptic plasticity and circuit dynamics in brain slice preparations, and to perform whole-cell recordings in awake and freely moving animals. (cshlpress.com)
  • Neurosci
  • Other exmaples are in the 1998/1999 papers by Jeff Magee in J neurosci and Nature Neurosci showing the varying density of Ih channels along the dendrites of CA1 cells to achieve synaptic scaling of of EPSPs along the dendrite. (bio.net)
  • transporters
  • The Human Neuronal Ion Channels RT² Profiler PCR Array was developed to profile expression of a panel of 84 genes encoding neuroscience-related ion channels and transporters. (qiagen.com)
  • In a joint project with the Department of Molecular Pharmacology at RWTH Aachen University, we are looking for a PhD student to join our research group on ion channels and transporters. (nature.com)
  • concentration
  • Gradient refers to a difference in the concentration of a substance (ion or charge) between two environments that are separated by a barrier. (news-medical.net)
  • Ions will passively move from an area of high to low concentration (i.e. down their gradient). (news-medical.net)
  • Eventually, this charge difference, called the electric potential difference, reaches a point at which the electrical force that pulls ions up against their concentration gradient is balanced with the force that drives them down. (news-medical.net)
  • There are all kinds of varying concentration of ion channels along dendrites, and dendrites vs axon. (bio.net)
  • CNG channels that are kept open in the dark by the relatively high concentration of cGMP allowing an inward current, carried by Na + , and to a lesser extent Ca 2+ . (els.net)
  • Ion concentration gradients are maintained by the Na + /Ca 2+ ‐K + exchanger in the outer segment and the Na + /K + ATPase active transporter in the inner segment. (els.net)
  • mediators
  • Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally. (springer.com)
  • Download our reference guide to the inflammatory pain pathway highlighting important channels and mediators. (abcam.com)
  • researchers
  • Making nAChR light sensitive allowed the researchers to study channel kinetics without considering molecules that stimulate them, a previously insurmountable limitation. (photonics.com)
  • The channel is open at rest, the researchers found, and closed when the SUMO tag is attached. (innovations-report.com)
  • Before this paper, if researchers had to model these channels, they would always run the simulation with all the ionizable residues charged, and the simulation could well be wrong," Grosman said. (redorbit.com)
  • selective
  • Both the anion-selective and cation-selective channels have a ring of basic amino acids, lysine or arginine, which generally carry a positive charge. (redorbit.com)
  • This makes sense for an anion-selective channel, but raises some questions about why cations are not repelled by these positive charges. (redorbit.com)
  • They saw that, in anion-selective channels, the basic residues appear to have the expected positive charge. (redorbit.com)
  • This allows cation-selective channels to keep the basic residues in their sequential place without having to substitute them with other amino acids. (redorbit.com)