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  • proteins
  • Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) are a feature of voltage gated ion channels (VGICs) and voltage sensitive proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The exquisite regulation of different CNG channels by divalent cations, calmodulin, phosphorylation and phospholipids allows these proteins to carry out disparate physiological functions with high precision. (els.net)
  • Ion channels are membrane proteins that allow ions to diffuse across cellular membranes in a regulated manner. (els.net)
  • The editors and contributors to this revised and updated version of the ion channel compendium hope that the unified nomenclatures for the ion channel families presented here will enhance and clarify communication among the many scientists in a broad range of disciplines who work on the ion channel proteins and will provide a valuable reference resource for the ion channel community. (aspetjournals.org)
  • One of the main goals of direct structural approaches as applied to ion channels is to determine what these proteins look like in their different functional states. (pnas.org)
  • molecules
  • Making nAChR light sensitive allowed the researchers to study channel kinetics without considering molecules that stimulate them, a previously insurmountable limitation. (photonics.com)
  • In a set of four inter-related volumes the Ion Channels FactsBook provides a comprehensive framework of facts about channel molecules central to electrical signalling phenomena of living cells. (textbookx.com)
  • modulate
  • Voltage-gated ion channels are key players in all biological systems where they generate and modulate for instance the nervous impulse and pacemaker activity in the heart and the brain. (liu.se)
  • transporters
  • In a joint project with the Department of Molecular Pharmacology at RWTH Aachen University, we are looking for a PhD student to join our research group on ion channels and transporters. (nature.com)
  • Experimental
  • As ion channels influence many aspects of biology, artificially light-responsive ion channels can facilitate experimental manipulation, allowing neuroscientists to better understand brain function. (photonics.com)
  • Direct experimental tests of this hypothesis and the Ca 2+ permeability of a GLR3.4 channel are presented here. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In general, for well-characterized ion channels, the experimental maneuvers that are needed to favor or disfavor at least some of these different conformations are known. (pnas.org)
  • diffuse
  • If C 9 + , an analogue of TEA + , is present inside the axon, the channels then "inactivate" as C 9 + ions diffuse in and block them. (rupress.org)
  • ionic
  • These results genetically linked ionic events, including Ca 2+ transport, to GLRs but fell short of demonstrating GLR3.3 to be a Ca 2+ -permeable channel. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Compendium
  • This task was undertaken by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology (IUPHAR) in 1999, and the IUPHAR Compendium of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels 2002 was published 3 years later as a bound volume by IUPHAR Media. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, we have expanded and updated the previous volume, which is published here as a series of 10 articles comprising the IUPHAR Compendium of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels 2005 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • As Guest Editors for the compendium articles, we would like to acknowledge the essential contributions of the chairs of the subcommittees who organized their committee's efforts to develop the nomenclatures presented here and to gather and present the wealth of data on each channel. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The nomenclatures for each channel family and the overall form and content of the compendium owe much to the wisdom and input of the Nomenclature Committee of IUPHAR (see www.iuphar.org/pdf/dir_18-19_nciuphar.pdf for complete committee membership) and to the committee chair, Dr. Michael Spedding (Institut de Recherches Internationales Servier, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France). (aspetjournals.org)
  • intracellular
  • generously note, old experiments using TEA + and analogues to block K channels ( Armstrong, 1971 ) suggested that the activation gate is inside and that the search should be in the intracellular segments of the sequence. (rupress.org)
  • Molecular Relationships
  • As for other large protein superfamilies, understanding the molecular relationships among family members, developing a unified, rational nomenclature for the ion channel families and subfamilies, and assigning physiological functions and pharmacological significance to each family member has been an important challenge. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The nine articles that follow the overview begin with an introductory section that presents the currently accepted nomenclature for each family of ion channels, describes their molecular relationships, and summarizes the main aspects of their structure and function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • segment
  • The steady inward current is balanced by a steady outward current through K + channels in the inner segment, completing the circuit. (els.net)
  • Ion concentration gradients are maintained by the Na + /Ca 2+ ‐K + exchanger in the outer segment and the Na + /K + ATPase active transporter in the inner segment. (els.net)
  • PMID
  • Glutamate receptor, an excitatory cation channel of which at least three types have been described (kainate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and quisqualate) [ PMID: 15165736 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • conduction
  • Evidence exhibits that HCN channels play critical roles in the generation and conduction of the electrical impulse and the physiopathological process of some cardiac diseases. (scielo.br)
  • In the healthy adult heart, HCN channels are predominantly expressed in the conduction system, especially in the sinoatrial node, HCN4 has been determined as the principal HCN isoform in sinoatrial node cells. (scielo.br)
  • Under normal conditions, HCN channels are poorly expressed outside the cardiac pacemaking and conduction system [ 11 , 18 - 20 ] , but it changes during cardiac disease. (scielo.br)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, both channels could be locked in an open state by introducing an ATPase inhibiting mutation (E1371S). (nih.gov)
  • mechanisms
  • The reviewers concluded that light-gated ion channels can potentially reveal mechanisms of neural signaling and function, restore the senses of patients with neural damage and serve as drug-delivery vehicles. (photonics.com)