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  • ethical
  • Regulatory issues are addressed in discussions of the ethical debate surrounding the derivation of human embryonic stem cells and the current policies governing their use in the United States and abroad, including the rules and conditions regulating federal funding and questions of intellectual property. (springer.com)
  • However, clinical application of stem cells raises numerous ethical and safety concerns. (medsci.org)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. (medsci.org)
  • This review offers stem cell scientists, clinicians and patient's useful information and could be used as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical application of stem cells. (medsci.org)
  • Our hope is that stem cell scientists and clinicians will use the information presented herein as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical translation of stem cells since controversial regulation and application of stem cell therapy has been falsely celebrated not only in countries with lax medical regulations but also in many developed countries. (medsci.org)
  • Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. (scribd.com)
  • At present, new ethical issues are beginning to emerge around the derivation and use of other hES cell-like stem cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all types of human tissue. (jci.org)
  • Against this background dystopian view of science, a pro-life ideology rapidly emerged as a main driving force behind stem cell ethical debate and policy. (jci.org)
  • But it hopes the ethical and scientific questions about when and how embryos are used will be determined by a parliamentary committee that begins hearings this fall, Health Minister Allan Rock's spokesman said in late July. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • These ethical objections cannot be over-ridden by the claim that the embryo is entitled to a "special respect" but that this respect can be violated if there is sufficient benefit for others. (blogspot.com)
  • Nor can the ethical issues be side-stepped by calling the blastocyst a "pre-embryo. (blogspot.com)
  • To this regard, a scientific, ethical, and political debate is recently reviving in Italy about the utilization of stem cells in regenerative medicine. (hindawi.com)
  • ethical status of human embryo nic stem cells partly hinges on the question of whether they should be characterized as embryo s or specialized bodily tissue. (counterbalance.org)
  • genetic
  • Results obtained from completed and on-going clinical studies indicate huge therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapy in the treatment of degenerative, autoimmune and genetic disorders. (medsci.org)
  • We also saw that the embryos that developed the furthest were from the same egg donors, suggesting that genetic variation between egg donors plays an important role in the developmental potential of cloned embryos. (bioethics.net)
  • Safety reviews of laboratory work that involves genetic alteration of hES cell lines. (nap.edu)
  • Likewise, the definitions of terms such as "gametes", or "diploid cells" could also defer to those used in the Congressional cloning "bans", thus allowing much human cloning and human genetic engineering. (lifeissues.net)
  • Such chaos will take on new meaning with human genetic engineering already firmly on track. (lifeissues.net)
  • Bell also wrote much of the five volume Treasury of Human Inheritance, a collection about genetics and genetic disorders. (asu.edu)
  • There are now only 22, and they not only lack the genetic diversity needed to create a library of stem cell types but are contaminated by mouse proteins and viruses, so are unsuitable for transplants. (dartmouth.edu)
  • iPS cells are produced by "reprogramming" the genetic code of adult cells. (spusa.org)
  • This is done by selectively inserting and forcing the expression of certain genetic factors that cause a cell to return to a state of pluripotency. (spusa.org)
  • For example, ATC G ATCG and ATC A ATCG represent two alleles: G and A. SNPs make up about 90% of all human genetic variation and occur every 100 to 300 bases along the 3-billion-base human genome . (highlighthealth.com)
  • gametes
  • Bill containing rules relating to the use of gametes and embryos (Embryos Bill), Parliamentary Documents II, 2000/01, 27 423, nos. (umn.edu)
  • Both MRT and editing the nuclear DNA of human gametes or embryos would introduce potentially heritable alterations into the human genome. (nature.com)
  • fertilization
  • In vitro fertilization typically produces more embryos than required. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The Pope did not specifically condemn the use of embryos created initially to help women become pregnant -- in vitro fertilization -- if those embryos were no longer needed and would otherwise be destroyed. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Between fertilization and the eighth week of gestation, the embryo undergoes multiple cell divisions. (asu.edu)
  • On 10 March 1988, China's first baby conceived through human in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET), commonly referred to as a test-tube baby, was born at the Peking Hospital (PUTH) in Beijing. (asu.edu)
  • The biomedical accomplishment of human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) took years to become the successful technique that presently enables infertile couples to have their own children. (asu.edu)
  • Robert Geoffrey Edwards, a British developmental biologist at University of Cambridge, began exploring human in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a way to treat infertility in 1960. (asu.edu)
  • germ
  • The hallmark of vertebrate gastrulation is the reorganization of the inner cell mass (ICM) into the three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (asu.edu)
  • tissue
  • Cells from these embryos closely match the men and could, in theory, be used to make near-identical tissue, blood or organ transplants for the men. (bioethics.net)
  • The uniqueness of tissue engineering is that it can restore normal structure in addition to repairing tissue function, and is often accomplished using stem cells. (asu.edu)
  • if one concluded that an embryo was not a person yet, the embryo could still as a human embryo warrant more respect and care than mere tissue. (counterbalance.org)
  • genomics
  • Participating in this way in a commercial enterprise ensures that advances in cell biology and genomics are applied ethically. (dartmouth.edu)
  • donors
  • Mitochondrial-replacement techniques (MRT) may soon be used to replace dysfunctional mitochondria in eggs or embryos with those obtained from healthy donors. (nature.com)
  • nuclear transfer
  • This combines nuclear transfer technology (cloning) with stem cell science to produce patient-specific cell lines not subject to rejection. (dartmouth.edu)
  • What they found was surprising: in contrast to ES cells produced by nuclear transfer, which are homozygous at most loci (meaning they contain two copies of the same form of a given gene at a specific location on a chromosome, referred to as an allele), parthenogenetically derived ES cells show predominant heterozygosity (meaning they have different alleles at a number of chromosomal locations) as a result of meiotic recombination. (highlighthealth.com)
  • 2001
  • Minister of Education and Science, Guidelines to the "Law Concerning Regulation Relating to Human Cloning Techniques and Other Similar Techniques," [PDF] December 4, 2001. (umn.edu)
  • biomedical
  • When may embryos be destroyed to advance biomedical progress? (scribd.com)
  • In setting out an argument about the intersection of politics, ethics, and policy, I focus on national bioethics committees, elected leaders, and their efforts to reconcile the moral status of the embryo and the imperative of biomedical progress in practice. (scribd.com)
  • Mr. Bush will create a new President's Council on Bioethics to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behavioural science and technology. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • moral
  • Living in a pluralistic society such as ours, supporters argue, means having to tolerate differences in religious and personal convictions over such personally theoretical matters as when during the course of human biological development moral personhood first appears. (jci.org)
  • Respect is inherent in the moral status of what the human embryo is in fact. (blogspot.com)
  • There is no arbitrary point at which we can logically confer or withdraw the moral claim of the embryo for protection of its life. (blogspot.com)
  • tissues derived
  • However, concerns regarding safety and differentaion efficiency exist, as mouse parthenogenetic embryos are unable to complete full development due to the absense of paternally expressed imprinted genes, and tissues derived from parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells appear to have growth defects . (highlighthealth.com)
  • oocyte
  • During FSH-induced maturation, rapid cAMP surges were observed in both cumulus cells and oocyte. (jove.com)
  • Most GJC between cumulus cells and oocyte ceased immediately after FSH stimulation and recommenced after the cAMP surge. (jove.com)
  • bioethics
  • A number of studies have successfully demonstrated the viability of theoretical proposals previously offered by President Bush's Council on Bioethics to generate alternative sources of pluripotent cells, at least in the experimental setting. (yale.edu)
  • lines
  • When applied to premium quality human oocytes, NT-ESC lines were derived from as few as two oocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • President Bush had promised the availability of more than 60 stem cell lines, but by 2004 it was clear that many fewer were eligible. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The inner cell mass is extracted from the embryo and cultured in a nutrient rich environment in a Petri dish in order to create stem cell lines. (spusa.org)
  • Similarly, a "parthenote" (derived entirely from one parent) that does not have the potential to develop into a person might be a source of cell lines with potential comparable to that of embryonic stem cell lines. (yale.edu)
  • development
  • This process of disaggregating the blastocyst's cells eliminates its potential for further development. (stanford.edu)
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (asu.edu)
  • This is enounced by the European Court of Justice in the Brüstle case, which defines the human embryo as the beginning of the development of the human being. (europa.eu)
  • As mice embryos develop, they undergo a stage of development called gastrulation. (asu.edu)
  • Studying human embryonic stem cells could provide information on the complex process of human development. (spusa.org)
  • Our in vitro culture system employs hydrogels in order to mimic the native ovarian environment by maintaining the 3D follicular architecture, cell-cell interactions and paracrine signaling that direct follicle development 5 . (jove.com)