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  • activator
  • Binding of LIF to LIFR recruits gp130 to form high affinity functional receptor complex leading to activation of downstream signal transduction pathway such as signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ventral
  • Meanwhile, Wnt inhibition acts later during gastrulation, and is essential for maintenance of organizer gene expression throughout gastrulation, a role which may depend on its ability to block the expression of a host of ventral, posterior, and lateral fate-specifying factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • secretion
  • hCG and transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β increase LIF secretion by the cultured endometrial epithelial cells derived from follicular and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • tissue
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma are the most common connective tissue disorders resulting in soft-tissue atrophy with facial involvement. (brainscape.com)
  • in the 19th century, the pathologist Rudolph Virchow first recognized the involvement of tissue calcification in the pathobiology of cardiovascular disease ( 112 ). (physiology.org)
  • Existing hypotheses have focused on accumulation of BP in the jaw or BP-specific tissue toxicity as a factor [ 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • neural crest
  • Functional experiments in Xenopus embryos demonstrated the involvement of Zic family members in left-right determination, early neural patterning, formation of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary, and neural crest specification. (springer.com)
  • receptor
  • Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a pleiotropic cytokine from interleukin- (IL-) 6 family, regulates various cellular functions via binding to membrane-bound LIF receptor (LIFR) and gp130 [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • include
  • Potential factors to consider include the unique biological features of the alveolar bone of the jaw. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Currently, three spliced variants of LIF have been identified which include membrane-associated, diffusible, and truncated forms acting as paracrine factors in embryo implantation [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • syndrome
  • As the name suggests, the syndrome is predominately characterized by posterior forelimb deficiencies or duplications, involving the ulna and little finger (with rare involvement of the hindlimb), and apocrine/mammary gland hypoplasia or dysfunction with absent or abnormal nipples. (biologists.org)
  • specific
  • Although malformation of the SCO during gestation leads to ventricular dilation and aqueductal stenosis before birth (FIGURE 1, B AND C ⇓ ) ( 32 , 80 ), the involvement of specific factors has been slowly elucidated over the past decade through the analysis of mutant mouse models. (physiology.org)
  • cell
  • In many cases, the involved factors are also used as biomarkers to demonstrate the passage of a cell through an EMT (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • In this context, the triggering of the EMT would be just one of the mechanisms used by these transcription factors to allow cell movement. (biologists.org)
  • family members
  • In addition, PIAS family members all contain an N-terminal SAP (scaffold attachment factor, acinus and PIAS) domain that is involved in DNA binding and protein-protein interactions, a PINIT domain that has been proposed to be required for subcellular localization and substrate interactions ( Yunus and Lima, 2009 ), a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM), and a variable C-terminal serine-threonine-rich region. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we review recent insights into the evolution of the Snail superfamily, and discuss a new unified nomenclature for this family of transcription factors that will facilitate the comparison of family members among distant species. (biologists.org)
  • Loss
  • They protect cells from the death induced either by the loss of survival factors or by direct apoptotic stimuli. (biologists.org)