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  • ligand
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA binding domain and/or ligand binding domain shows that invertebrate and vertebrate TRs cluster together, TRs from the vertebrates and from the jawless vertebrate (lamprey) clustered within separate subgroups, Platyhelminth TRs cluster outside of the vertebrate TR subgroups and that the schistosome TRs and S. mediterranea TRs clustered within separate subgroups. (beds.ac.uk)
  • to allow for their widespread distribution, these hormones must bond to carrier plasma glycoproteins (e.g., thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)) to form ligand -protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • pituitary
  • TH is synthesized in the thyroid gland under the control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by the pituitary. (beds.ac.uk)
  • For example, the actions of a pituitary hormone , prolactin, on the control of body water and salt content were first discovered in fishes and later led to the demonstration of similar mechanisms in mammals. (britannica.com)
  • bind
  • Using S. mansoni TRs as an example, invertebrate TRs exhibited the ability to form a dimer with RXR prior to the emergence of the vertebrate TRs and were able to bind to vertebrate TR core DNA elements as a monomer or homodimer. (beds.ac.uk)
  • THs are lipophilic molecules able to passively cross the membrane and bind to its receptor, the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). (beds.ac.uk)
  • The specific target DNA sequence to which NRs bind is called a hormone response element (HRE). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Corepressors then dissociated from the TR allowing coactivators to bind to the C-terminus of the TR in a hormone-dependent manner. (beds.ac.uk)
  • relatively
  • A conservative feature of vertebrates is that the plasma level of melatonin increases at night, whereas diurnal levels of this hormone are relatively low [ 3 ]. (ajas.info)
  • chemical
  • Some of these molecules are even synthesized and employed as chemical regulators, similar to hormones in higher animals, by unicellular animals and plants. (britannica.com)
  • production
  • The text also considers significant concepts of physiological genetics, and then explains asexual and sexual reproduction, the sex hormones of invertebrates, and the use of stimulants for animal production. (elsevier.com)
  • The reaction of the target cells may then be recognized by the original hormone-producing cells, leading to a down-regulation in hormone production. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell ( autocrine or intracrine signalling ) or nearby cells ( paracrine signalling ). (wikipedia.org)