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  • mRNA
  • Eukaryotic cells transport packets of components (membraneā€bound vesicles and organelles, protein rafts, mRNA, chromosomes) to particular intracellular locations by attaching them to molecular motors that haul them along microtubules and actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through this pathway it is possible to facilitate the movement of essential molecules such as membraneā€bounded vesicles and organelles, protein rafts, mRNA and chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene appeared to be expressed into two forms of mRNA transcripts, which were translated into the two proteins, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathway
  • Contigs were annotated with pathway, ontology, and protein domain identifiers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This pathway plays a key role in multiple cellular processes by synthesizing sterol isoprenoids, such as cholesterol, and non-sterol isoprenoids, such as dolichol, heme A, tRNA isopentenyltransferase, and ubiquinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Since intracellular transport heavily relies on microtubules for movement, the components of the cytoskeleton play a vital role in trafficking vesicles between organelles and the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small membrane bound vesicles responsible for transporting proteins from one organelle to another are commonly found in endocytic and secretory pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose that the AtSERK3 protein is involved in changing the equilibrium between plasma membrane-located BRI1 homodimers and endocytosed BRI1-AtSERK3 heterodimers. (plantcell.org)
  • In contrast with animals where steroid hormones are perceived by nuclear receptors, plants employ plasma membrane receptors that include the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) protein. (plantcell.org)
  • Most neurotransmitters are water-soluble and require transmembrane proteins to transport them across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic efficiency (i.e., the ratio between maximal velocity and Michaelis-Menten constant) of the AEA membrane transporter (AMT) is almost doubled compared with control cells, demonstrate that, among the proteins of the "endocannabinoid system," only CB1 and AMT critically depend on membrane cholesterol content, an observation that may have important implications for the role of CB1 in protecting nerve cells against (endo)cannabinoid-induced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bulk of lipid in a cell membrane provides a fluid matrix for proteins to rotate and laterally diffuse for physiological functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are adapted to high membrane fluidity environment of lipid bilayer with the presence of an annular lipid shell, consisting of lipid molecules bound tightly to surface of integral membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid rafts occur when lipid species and proteins aggregate in domains in the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • These membrane proteins have various functions and characteristics and catalyze different chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral proteins are unlike integral proteins in that they hold weak interactions with the surface of the bilayer and can easily become dissociated from the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral proteins are located on only one face of a membrane and create membrane asymmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Using transient expression in protoplasts of BRI1 and AtSERK3 fused to cyan and yellow fluorescent green fluorescent protein variants allowed us to localize each receptor independently in vivo. (plantcell.org)
  • metabolism
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Data interpretation and their quantitative use in human and ecological risk assessments can be enhanced with mechanistic computational models to help define mechanisms of action and improve understanding of intracellular concentration-response behavior. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • cell
  • A pseudouridine synthase module is essential for mitochondrial protein synthesis and cell viability. (abcam.com)
  • Cell biological, biochemical and clinical topics are included in this book, which serve to emphasize the acknowledged and important benefits to be gained from the study of cholesterol and cholesterol-binding proteins within the biomedical sciences and the involvement of cholesterol in several clinical disorders. (epa.gov)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Since the ER is the site of protein synthesis it would serve as the parent organelle and the cis face of the golgi, where proteins and signals are received, would be the acceptor. (wikipedia.org)