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  • receptor
  • A G protein-coupled receptor at work: the rhodopsin model," Trends in Biochemical Sciences , vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 540-552, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • A. V. Smrcka, "G protein βγ subunits: central mediators of G protein-coupled receptor signaling," Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences , vol. 65, no. 14, pp. 2191-2214, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • G. Munch, C. Dees, M. Hekman, and D. Palm, "Multisite contacts involved in coupling of the β -adrenergic receptor with the stimulatory guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory protein: structural and functional studies by β -receptor-site-specific synthetic peptides," European Journal of Biochemistry , vol. 198, no. 2, pp. 357-364, 1991. (hindawi.com)
  • B. Konig and M. Gratzel, "Site of dopamine D 1 receptor binding to G s protein mapped with synthetic peptides," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta , vol. 1223, no. 2, pp. 261-266, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • T. Voss, E. Wallner, A. P. Czernilofsky, and M. Freissmuth, "Amphipathic α -helical structure does not predict the ability of receptor-derived synthetic peptides to interact with guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 268, no. 7, pp. 4637-4642, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • M. Kubota and K. Wakamatsu, "Peptide fragment of the m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activates G q but not G i2 ," Journal of Peptide Science , vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 998-1002, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • In the field of molecular biology , the cAMP-dependent pathway , also known as the adenylyl cyclase pathway , is a G protein-coupled receptor -triggered signaling cascade used in cell communication . (wikipedia.org)
  • When a GPCR is activated by its extracellular ligand, a conformational change is induced in the receptor that is transmitted to an attached intracellular heterotrimeric G protein complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we describe that in control condition (CC), i.e. following 2 hours of natural sleep in the morning, the α(2)-adrenergic receptor (α(2)-AR) agonist, clonidine, had no effect on hcrt/orx neurons, whereas following 2 hours of SD (SDC), it hyperpolarized the neurons by activating G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • HMG box-containing protein 1, repressive glucocorticoid receptor, cAMP-responsive binding protein and Homeo domain factor Pbx-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP) also called CAP (catabolite gene activator protein) forms a complex with cAMP and thereby is activated to bind to DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-peptide has been shown to bind to the surface of a number of cell types such as neuronal, endothelial, fibroblast and renal tubular, at nanomolar concentrations to a receptor that is likely G-protein-coupled. (wikipedia.org)
  • The changes elicited by ligand binding (or signal sensing) in a receptor give rise to a signaling cascade, which is a chain of biochemical events along a signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of a signaling molecule with a receptor causes a change in the conformation of the receptor, known as receptor activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK
  • Experimentation has proposed that the MAPK module MEKK1-MKK4/MKK5-MPK3/MPK6 may be responsible for flg22 signal transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists are not certain if MAPK cascades are responsible for the signaling, so further investigation is needed for this. (wikipedia.org)
  • MEKK1 interact with WRKY53, which is responsible for mekk1 genes set, and alter the activity of WRKY53 that is a short portion of MAPK signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • The protein of C8orf46 does contain a domain of unknown function (DUF4648) and is a part of the SH3 domain family, which is known to bind to proline-rich ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Messenger RNA
  • This correlates the translation direction to the text direction (because when a protein is translated from messenger RNA, it is created from N-terminus to C-terminus - amino acids are added to the carbonyl end). (wikipedia.org)
  • When a protein is translated from messenger RNA, it is created from N-terminus to C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • S. R. Sprang, Z. Chen, and X. Du, "Structural basis of effector regulation and signal termination in heterotrimeric G α proteins," Advances in Protein Chemistry , vol. 74, pp. 1-65, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • In smooth muscle, cGMP is the signal for relaxation, and is coupled to many homeostatic mechanisms including regulation of vasodilaton, vocal tone, insulin secretion, and peristalsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, PPIA is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell, where it partakes in intracellular signaling, protein transport, and transcription regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • W. J. Phillips and R. A. Cerione, "A C-terminal peptide of bovine rhodopsin binds to the transducin α -subunit and facilitates its activation," Biochemical Journal , vol. 299, no. 2, pp. 351-357, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • Each GPCR binds to and is activated by a specific ligand stimulus that ranges in size from small molecule catecholamines , lipids, or neurotransmitters to large protein hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of ligand, the encoded protein binds to the promoter region of TGFB-responsive genes and recruits a nuclear repressor complex. (cancerindex.org)
  • Its active site is a hydrophobic pocket that binds peptides containing proline. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, cAMP binds to and regulates the function of ion channels such as the HCN channels and a few other cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins such as Epac1 and RAPGEF2. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cAMP binds, the domain dissociates and exposes the now-active GEF domain, allowing Epac to activate small Ras-like GTPase proteins, such as Rap1. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The connecting peptide, or C-peptide, is a short 31-amino-acid polypeptide that connects insulin's A-chain to its B-chain in the proinsulin molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • After proinsulin is packaged into vesicles in the Golgi apparatus (beta-granules), the C-peptide is removed, leaving the A-chain B-chain, bound together by disulfide bonds, that constitute the insulin molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the efficiency of the nodes, a signal can be amplified (a concept known as signal gain), so that one signaling molecule can generate a response involving hundreds to millions of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription
  • As a member of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) family, this protein catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds, which allows it to regulate many biological processes, including intracellular signaling, transcription, inflammation, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • Mutated p53 proteins are typically more stable than wild-type, and can inhibit the activity of the wild-type protein in suppressing cell proliferation and in inducing cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the mechanisms by which Gadd45 proteins inhibit cell cycle control are not fully understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The breakdown of large amounts of ethanol in alcoholic drinks produces large amounts of chemical energy, in the form of NADH, signalling to the cell to inhibit the breakdown of fatty acids (which also produces energy) and simultaneously increase the synthesis of fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • GPCR
  • This structure allows pepducin lipopeptides to anchor in the cell membrane lipid bilayer and target the GPCR/G protein interface via a unique intracellular allosteric mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Resveratrol treatment induced apoptosis by activating tumor suppressor p53 protein, whereas IGF-1R siRNA treatment did not affect apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PPIA may also activate Akt and NF-κB signaling, resulting in the upregulation of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, and thus preventing apoptosis in ECs in response to oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in that the concentrations increase gradually (with no oscillation), throughout the cell cycle based on cell growth and the external growth-regulatory signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of structurally related cell regulatory proteins that was named after its first member, TGF-β1, originally described in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding
  • Membrane bound guanylate cyclases include an external ligand-binding domain (e.g., for peptide hormones such as BNP and ANP ), a transmembrane domain, and an internal catalytic domain homologous to adenylyl cyclases . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • Modifications include the removal of initiator methionine (iMet) by aminopeptidases, attachment of small chemical groups such as acetyl, propionyl and methyl, and the addition of membrane anchors, such as palmitoyl and myristoyl groups N-terminal acetylation N-terminal acetylation is a form of protein modification that can occur in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • This protein is thought to have a role in the assembly of extracellular membranes. (cancerindex.org)
  • The nature of such stimuli can vary widely, ranging from extracellular cues, such as the presence of EGF, to intracellular events, such as the DNA damage resulting from replicative telomere attrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • Protein malnutrition, such as that seen in kwashiorkor, results in a lack of precursor apoproteins within the cell, therefore unused lipids which would normally participate in lipoprotein synthesis begin to accumulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regions
  • For example, the amino-terminal regions of S and M cyclins contain short destruction-box motifs that target these proteins for proteolysis in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such signaling is mainly orchestrated in focal adhesions, regions where the integrin-bound actin cytoskeleton detects changes and transmits them downstream through YAP1. (wikipedia.org)