• The relationship of the various synthesis and degradation rates to the physiological state of mammalian cells remains to be determined, as does the pathway of assembly and disassembly of RNP substructures during re-utilization of the proteins and during their turnover. (springer.com)
  • Some genes in the MAI encode proteins related to magnetosome synthesis, viz. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have examined in detail the correlations between protein synthesis rates, intracellular pH (pHi) and the concentrations of creatine metabolites in the rat heart perfused anterogradely in vitro. (biochemj.org)
  • Protein synthesis rates were significantly stimulated when pHi was increased above its physiological value, and they were strongly correlated with pHi. (biochemj.org)
  • Adenine nucleotide (ATP, ADP and AMP) concentrations and the ATP/ADP concentration ratio were not systematically altered by manipulating pHi, and protein synthesis rates showed only a relatively weak dependence on these variables. (biochemj.org)
  • We discuss three hypotheses to account for our observations: (i) protein synthesis rates are influenced directly by pHi, (ii) pHi affects the concentrations of creatine metabolites, which in turn affect protein synthesis rates, and (iii) pHi affects the value of an unidentified co-variable, which in turn affects protein synthesis. (biochemj.org)
  • We will then study the intracellular changes that result from the inhibition of specific subtypes of Galphas following glucocorticoid- or heat- induction of monoclonal antibody synthesis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The endomembrane system, known as secretory pathway, is responsible for the synthesis and transport of protein molecules in cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many viruses avoid immune surveillance during latent infection through reduction in the synthesis of virally encoded proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Although antigen presentation critically depends on the level of viral protein synthesis, the precise mechanism used to regulate the generation of antigenic peptide precursors remains elusive. (pnas.org)
  • Reducing this purine bias through the generation of constructs expressing codon-modified sequences, while maintaining the encoded protein sequence, increased the stem-loop structure of the corresponding mRNA and dramatically enhanced self-synthesis of the viral protein. (pnas.org)
  • These findings delineate a mechanism by which viruses regulate self-synthesis of proteins and offer an effective strategy to evade CD8 + T cell-mediated immune regulation. (pnas.org)
  • Indeed, the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen, EBNA1, which is ubiquitously expressed in all EBV-associated malignancies, is an example of one such protein, which inhibits its self-synthesis and blocks proteasomal degradation, thereby restricting immune recognition by CD8 + T lymphocytes ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • This identification and mutant characterization of a p24 locus in Drosophila will pave the way for a better understanding of cell-type-specific functions and interactions among p24 proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Experimental evidence suggests that the inhibitory role of p57kip2 depends on specific interactions with binding proteins such as LIMK-1, CDK2, Mash1, and Hes5 either by controlling their site of action or their activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • We analyze gene perturbation expression profiles, reconstruct a directed gene interaction network and decipher the regulatory interactions among genes involved in protein transport signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Secondary-structure predictions suggest that SHERP contains an amphiphilic a-helix that is presumably involved in protein-protein interactions. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Intracellular antibodies or intrabodies with specific and high‐affinity binding properties have great potential for application in the therapy of human diseases in which target proteins or protein interactions are found only inside the target cell. (embopress.org)
  • Although protein-based drugs have shown success, they have been limited mostly to cytokines, growth factors, enzymes and monoclonal antibodies, all of which function primarily extracellularly. (techconnectworld.com)
  • Development of procedures to knock out the function of intracellular proteins by expression of cDNAs encoding specific antibodies. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thin sections of tobacco etch virus (TEV)-infected leaves were treated with goat anti-rabbit antibodies conjugated to 15-nm gold particles after the sections had been exposed to rabbit antisera specific to virus particles, virus capsid, 70K CI protein, 54K NI protein, or 49K NI protein. (elsevier.com)
  • However, there remain few antibodies which work effectively in intracellular reducing environments because there are often problems with correct folding and the resulting lack of function, low expression and short half‐life ( Cattaneo and Biocca, 1999 ). (embopress.org)
  • At this time, there is no general rule or prediction of the requirements for soluble and stable intracellular antibodies. (embopress.org)
  • Intracellular pathogens actively avoid delivery to or directly target lysosomes, the major intracellular degradative organelle. (jimmunol.org)
  • We conclude that LPS priming increases AGS3 levels, which enhances lysosomal function and increases the capacity of macrophages to eliminate intracellular pathogens. (jimmunol.org)
  • Pathogens, especially those that survive and proliferate in intracellular niches, have developed sophisticated strategies to subvert host defense systems ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Some forms of hemochromatosis, an inherited disorder of iron metabolism, are also linked to susceptibility to intracellular pathogens, an association that has not been explained at a molecular level ( 11 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • It is pertinent that the inhibitory effect of FPN on Salmonella growth is similar to that observed with Nramp1 ( 12 , 17 ), which has an established in vivo role in regulating susceptibility to intracellular pathogens in mice and humans ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • 1995)) proteins, are components of coat protein (COP)-coated vesicles and are present in species as diverse as fungi, plants, flies, worms, and mammals, indicating that they have important conserved functions. (nih.gov)
  • It has been established by electron microscopic radioautography of guinea pig pancreatic exocrine cells (Caro and Palade, 1964) that secretory proteins are transported from the elements of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to condensing vacuoles of the Golgi complex possibly via small vesicles located in the periphery of the complex. (rupress.org)
  • To define more clearly the role of these vesicles in the intracellular transport of secretory proteins, we have investigated the secretory cycle of the guinea pig pancreas by cell fractionation procedures applied to pancreatic slices incubated in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • These data provide direct evidence that secretory proteins are transported from the cisternae of the rough ER to condensing vacuoles via the small vesicles of the Golgi complex. (rupress.org)
  • Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors. (harvard.edu)
  • Our TCRm CAR, derived from the ESK1 TCRm mAb, termed WT1 28z, is reactive with the RMFPNAPYL peptide of the WT1 protein that is processed and presented on the surface of cells in the context of HLA-A*02:01. (bloodjournal.org)
  • As a consequence, a higher number of HLA-peptide complexes were detected on the surface of cells expressing this viral protein. (pnas.org)
  • Endoglycosidase treatment demonstrated presence of an intracellular high mannose glycan on each subunit. (jhu.edu)
  • Mutation of Cys-11 to alanine blocks the palmitoylation of pABP-L and targets the protein to intracellular clusters, confirming that targeting the protein to spines is dependent on palmitoylation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Analysis of EF-hand proteins in complexes with their targets may define the structural basis for functional consequences. (sciencemag.org)
  • Microtubule associated proteins offer the potential for new targets for anticancer agents , as they have diverse functions including some actions that stabilize the microtubule, others that are involved in tubulin dissociation, and additional proteins that act as motor proteins to transport substances along the microtubule. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Their secretory proteins can be labeled with radioactive amino acids in short, well defined pulses which, followed by cell fractionation, makes possible a kinetic analysis of transport. (rupress.org)
  • Elevation of intracellular Clara cell 10-kDa protein in central acini of rats exposed for 20 months. (cdc.gov)
  • The regional restructuring of the central acinus in rats following long term exposure to ozone (10028156) was examined, and factors, including Clara cell 10 kilodalton protein (CC10), that may make some target cell populations more resistant to injury, were identified. (cdc.gov)
  • We have designed and engineered the first CAR T cell against a human intracellular protein, WT1. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1) GPI-anchored proteins : We have established that the ectoenzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is initially synthesized as a proform having a hydrophobic sequence at the COOH terminus, which is immediately cleaved and replaced by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, and the GPI-anchored form is transported to the cell surface. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Other intracellular components of keratinocytes, including the nucleus, are removed whereas cell junctions via desmosomes are maintained during cornification (Fig. 1 c). (springer.com)
  • Protein-A affinity purified mAbs were used to define the antigens, which were confirmed as novel biomarkers on the cancer cell surface using microarray, mass and proteomic analyses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This paper describes the implementation of a sensitive, on-chip immunoassay for the analysis of intracellular proteins developed using microdroplet technology The system offers a number of analytical functionalities, enabling the lysis of low cell numbers, as well as protein detection and quantification, integrated within a single process flow. (gla.ac.uk)
  • also showed that the normal ELF3 protein is more likely to be found in the nucleus of a plant cell than the ELF3-Sha version, which might suggest that this protein is involved in switching genes off. (elifesciences.org)
  • We found that expression of mABCG1 is able to vary (both increase and decrease) the concentration of exogenous sterols in the cell in response to intracellular sterol changes. (columbia.edu)
  • Following this idea, we used a transfected-cell array technique to perform a rapid and cost-effective analysis of the intracellular distribution of Chr 21 proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the alteration in cell morphology and growth as a result of protein over-expression for claudin-8 and claudin-14 genes has been characterized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In many cases, aberrant translocation of proteins correlates highly with pathological changes in cell physiology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anti-TEV or anti-TEV capsid sera specifically detected virus particles and capsid protein in the cytoplasm and capsid protein which was also found arrayed in a regular fashion adjacent to the cell wall. (elsevier.com)
  • Proteinase K, RNase and DNase pre-treatment of cell lysates suggested a protein nature for all of the antigens and a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) nature for some of the antigens recognized by serum IgG of MS and SLE patients. (elsevier.com)
  • 14 ) hypothesized that many persistent viruses have evolved to overload the coding sequences of latent proteins with purine codons so as to avoid triggering the host cell dsRNA surveillance mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • It is involved in mitotic spindle formation during cell division by binding cytoskeletal proteins thus contributing to cell proliferation and differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • There are many parallels between different neurodegenerative disorders including atypical protein assemblies as well as induced cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the protein products are inside the cell, rather than exposed on the cell surface, conventional antibody therapy is not an option. (embopress.org)
  • The encoded protein associates with actin-based cytoskeletal structures and may play a role in multiple processes including hair cell stereocilia formation, myoblast proliferation and glomerular podocyte and endothelial cell maintenance. (nih.gov)
  • The J774-FPN1.RV2 clone, which expresses murine FPN and green fluorescent protein (GFP) from an integrated bicistronic vector, has two- to threefold-higher levels of FPN than the control J774-GFP.RV clone ( 16 ) (Fig. 1 ), a difference that is similar to the changes in FPN expression observed in both human hemochromatosis and mouse models of this disease ( 2 , 15 , 27 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • The utility of this approach was exemplified by producing six target proteins, including Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP), Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine candidate Rv1626, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding ZZ domain of protein A derived from Staphylococcus aureus, human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and human interferon alpha 2b (IFNα2b). (edu.au)
  • Background: Recombinant protein production and purification from Escherichia coli is often accompanied with expensive and complicated procedures, especially for therapeutic proteins. (edu.au)
  • In our study, the suitability of NPs based on a new type of polyester polymer for the controlled release and targeted intracellular delivery of (therapeutic) proteins was explored. (uu.nl)
  • Translation of the A36R mRNA in vitro produced a protein of the same size whether or not the translation reaction was performed in the presence of canine pancreatic microsomes. (nih.gov)
  • An in vitro translation study demonstrated that La protein stimulated the internal initiation of poliovirus translation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • AICD, the C-terminal tail generated from the proteolytic cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), has been generating interest for its transcriptional modulatory roles. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Detection of intracellular ROS production is based on oxidation of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) by ROS to produce the highly fluorescent 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). (springer.com)
  • Similar experiments with recombinant protein ZZT2 also revealed that most of the synthesized product was degraded. (diva-portal.org)
  • The order of proteolysis kinetics depended on the concentration of the recombinant protein: at low concentrations both SpA and ZZT2 were degraded according to first order kinetics, while at high concentrations ZZT2 was degraded according to zero order kinetics. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here it was demonstrated that, by using an intein cleavable polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase fusion, recombinant proteins can be first produced and sequestered on a natural resin, the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) inclusions, then separated from contaminating host proteins via simple PHA bead isolation steps, and finally purified by specific release into the soluble fraction induced by a pH reduction. (edu.au)
  • We previously reported the results of clinical trials in which substantial protection against experimental sporozoite (spz) 3 challenge was achieved with a recombinant P. falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) protein-based vaccine known as RTS,S ( 2 , 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In this work, we show that this class of proteins with unusually high net positive charge is frequently found among viral structural proteins, more specifically among capsid proteins. (ul.pt)
  • More specifically, we showed that IncA and IcmG/DotF, two SNARE-like proteins respectively expressed by Chlamydia and Legionella, inhibit the endocytic SNARE machinery. (jefferson.edu)