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  • mediate
  • Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms mediate insulin effects on glucose transport in muscle and adipose tissues and lipid synthesis in liver and support other metabolic processes, expression of enzymes needed for islet insulin secretion and hepatic glucose production/release, CNS appetite suppression, and inflammatory responses. (physiology.org)
  • fusion
  • Membrane fusion is a cellular process by which two initially separate lipid bilayers merge to form one interconnected structure. (frontiersin.org)
  • Intracellular membrane fusion mediates material and information exchange among different cells or cellular compartments with high accuracy and spatiotemporal resolution. (springer.com)
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to monitor thiol isomerase mobilization in activated platelets in the presence and absence of actin polymerization (inhibited by latrunculin) and in the presence or absence of membrane fusion mediated by Munc13-4 (absent in platelets from Unc13dJinx mice). (ovid.com)
  • Rab GTPases are molecular switches that orchestrate protein complexes before membrane fusion reactions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Following exocytotic membrane fusion, SV constituents are retrieved by endocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Confocal microscopic analysis of vamp721 - and vamp722- -deficient plants that expressed a fusion of VAMP722 and green fluorescent protein showed pathogen-dependent directed movement to and focal accumulation of VAMP722-containing complexes at the sites of B . graminis entry of leaf epidermal cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Yeast two cross types and GST-pull down assays accepted that FgMon1 bodily interacts using a Rab GTPase FgRab7 which can be very important to the development infections membrane fusion and autophagy in mutant. (lecollege.org)
  • In and revealed that GSK2126458 both FgRab7 and MoRab7 localize to the vacuolar membrane and regulate the fusion of vacuoles and autophagosomes23 24 Many recent studies have exhibited that this Mon1-Ccz1 complex was the GEF for Ypt7 protein in yeast25. (lecollege.org)
  • permeability
  • The osmotic and permeability parameters of a cell membrane are essential physico-chemical properties of a cell and particularly important with respect to cell volume changes and the regulation thereof. (jove.com)
  • The unexpected finding of several fold higher L(p) values for endosmotic flow indicates highly asymmetric membrane permeability for water in COS-7. (jove.com)
  • ATP release was also markedly repressed by the gap junction channel inhibitor carbenoxolone in the absence of any obvious thrombin-induced change in membrane permeability indicative of hemichannel gating. (physiology.org)
  • molecules
  • Although experimental methods can provide detailed information for a small fraction of these proteins, computational modeling is needed for the majority of protein molecules which are experimentally uncharacterized. (jove.com)
  • Several signaling molecules, including members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of protein serine/threonine kinases, are activated during phagocytosis and associate to the phagosome during the maturation process ( 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • disulfide isomerase
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy imaging was used to localize protein disulfide isomerase and ERp57 in murine and human megakaryocytes at various developmental stages. (ovid.com)
  • In this review article, we discuss targets of redox-dependent thiol modifications that are known or expected to be involved in the regulation of EV release, namely redox-sensitive calcium channels, N -ethylmaleimide sensitive factor, protein disulfide isomerase, phospholipid flippases, actin filaments, calpains and cell surface-exposed thiols. (springer.com)
  • modulate
  • As the redox state of protein thiols greatly impacts three-dimensional protein structure and, consequently, function, redox modifications of protein thiols may directly modulate EV release in response to changes in the cell's redox environment. (springer.com)
  • Identification of the thiol-containing proteins that modulate EV release in pro-oxidant environments could provide a rationale for broad application of thiol group-containing antioxidants in chronic inflammatory diseases. (springer.com)
  • The regulation of synaptic protein function by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation is optimally situated to modulate aspects of synaptic plasticity. (jneurosci.org)
  • synthesis
  • In patients with FHL-2, PRF1 mutations induce a complete or partial reduction of the synthesis of the perforin protein, resulting in impairment of the granule-mediated cytotoxic machinery of NK and T cells. (haematologica.org)
  • Because SLBP1 regulates a replication-dependent synthesis and degradation of histone protein, this finding suggests that replication-coupled histone regulation is important for retinal neurogenesis. (oist.jp)
  • cell membrane
  • Analysis of subcellular location of STX3 by confocal microscopy showed translocation of STX3 to the cell membrane only in DCs secreting IL-6 or MIP-1α, indicating a role for STX3 in trafficking of these immune mediators. (frontiersin.org)
  • E(a), the activation energy required for the permeation of water through the cell membrane, was 10,700, and 12,000 cal/mol under hyper- and hypotonic conditions, respectively. (jove.com)
  • translocation
  • A study reported in this issue of the JCI using mice lacking Munc18c, one of the vesicle-trafficking proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation, has provided new insights into the signaling/trafficking intersection that controls insulin-stimulated GLUT4 movement. (jci.org)
  • kinase
  • In cultured cerebellar granule cells, the overall level of rabphilin phosphorylation was increased approximately twofold after stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) and high K + -induced membrane depolarization ( Fykse, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • highly conserved
  • Here we describe the p115 ARM-motifs for reasons of clarity and nomenclature and show that both sequence and structure are highly conserved among ARM-repeat proteins. (jove.com)
  • mechanism
  • Perforin is a pore-forming protein with a mechanism of trans-membrane channel formation similar to that of complement component 9 (C9), with which it shows extensive structural similarity. (haematologica.org)
  • Intracellular trafficking and communication between neurons are important examples of the many processes that rely on this mechanism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we provide methods to measure the extent and mechanism of NC transport across a model cell barrier, which consists of a monolayer of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells grown on a porous membrane located in a transwell insert. (jove.com)
  • For this shift in regulatory mechanism to be successful, induction of TetR must be sensitive enough to respond to an inducing protein expressed at its endogenous level. (jove.com)
  • plasma
  • Whereas the nascent phagosome is formed to a large extent by invagination of the plasma membrane ( 3 ), the membrane surface required to internalize multiple or large targets may represent an area equivalent to the entire cell surface ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • involves
  • This method involves flanking the gene of interest with loxP sites, which are specific recognition sequences for the Cre recombinase protein. (jove.com)
  • amino
  • The aim of de novo protein design is to find the amino acid sequences that will fold into a desired 3-dimensional structure with improvements in specific properties, such as binding affinity, agonist or antagonist behavior, or stability, relative to the native sequence. (jove.com)
  • structural
  • Recently, structural and functional insight into tethering mediated by the ARM-repeat protein p115 has been provided. (jove.com)
  • Given a protein sequence, a typical output from the I-TASSER server includes secondary structure prediction, predicted solvent accessibility of each residue, homologous template proteins detected by threading and structure alignments, up to five full-length tertiary structural models, and structure-based functional annotations for enzyme classification, Gene Ontology terms and protein-ligand binding sites. (jove.com)
  • mRNA
  • Characterization of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent cells often includes the analysis of reference markers, both at the mRNA and protein level. (jove.com)
  • regulation
  • The internalization of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) from the basolateral membrane to the cytoplasm occurred in accordance with the down-regulation of gene expression 3 h after LPS injection. (biomedcentral.com)