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  • SNARE
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of SNARE proteins play important roles in regulating the processes of fusion and release, but the mechanisms involved are only starting to be uncovered. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we review recent evidence that SNARE TMDs exert influence by regulating the dynamics of the fusion pore, the initial aqueous connection between the vesicular lumen and the extracellular space. (frontiersin.org)
  • Manipulations of SNARE TMDs were found to affect fusion pore properties profoundly, both during exocytosis and in biochemical reconstitutions. (frontiersin.org)
  • mediate
  • Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms mediate insulin effects on glucose transport in muscle and adipose tissues and lipid synthesis in liver and support other metabolic processes, expression of enzymes needed for islet insulin secretion and hepatic glucose production/release, CNS appetite suppression, and inflammatory responses. (physiology.org)
  • synaptic
  • Analysis of two closely related proteins, Rab3a and Rab27b, revealed colocalization in synaptic nerve terminals, where they reside on distinct but overlapping SV pools. (jneurosci.org)
  • Conversely, the behavior of the GluR2 mutants incapable of binding to GRIP/ABP suggests that these PDZ proteins play a role in the stabilization of an intracellular pool of AMPARs that have been internalized on stimulation, thus inhibiting their recycling to the synaptic membrane. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the trafficking of AMPARs must be subject to regulation at several steps allowing precise control of the number of AMPARs in the synaptic membrane. (pnas.org)
  • permeability
  • The osmotic and permeability parameters of a cell membrane are essential physico-chemical properties of a cell and particularly important with respect to cell volume changes and the regulation thereof. (jove.com)
  • The unexpected finding of several fold higher L(p) values for endosmotic flow indicates highly asymmetric membrane permeability for water in COS-7. (jove.com)
  • ATP release was also markedly repressed by the gap junction channel inhibitor carbenoxolone in the absence of any obvious thrombin-induced change in membrane permeability indicative of hemichannel gating. (physiology.org)
  • extracellular
  • It transports proteins to the extracellular space or to the vacuole. (rero.ch)
  • Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins including collagen that occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases. (jci.org)
  • Emerging antifibrotic therapies are aimed at inhibiting the accumulation of fibrogenic cells and/or preventing the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. (jci.org)
  • translocation
  • Analysis of subcellular location of STX3 by confocal microscopy showed translocation of STX3 to the cell membrane only in DCs secreting IL-6 or MIP-1α, indicating a role for STX3 in trafficking of these immune mediators. (frontiersin.org)
  • A study reported in this issue of the JCI using mice lacking Munc18c, one of the vesicle-trafficking proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation, has provided new insights into the signaling/trafficking intersection that controls insulin-stimulated GLUT4 movement. (jci.org)
  • disulfide isomerase
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy imaging was used to localize protein disulfide isomerase and ERp57 in murine and human megakaryocytes at various developmental stages. (ovid.com)
  • In this review article, we discuss targets of redox-dependent thiol modifications that are known or expected to be involved in the regulation of EV release, namely redox-sensitive calcium channels, N -ethylmaleimide sensitive factor, protein disulfide isomerase, phospholipid flippases, actin filaments, calpains and cell surface-exposed thiols. (springer.com)
  • interaction
  • Protein-protein interaction between AtVAM3 and AtVTI11 in the endodermal cells was detected immunologically. (pnas.org)
  • Preventing the interaction of GluR2 with these proteins impairs LTD in both the hippocampus and cerebellum ( 17 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • synthesis
  • In patients with FHL-2, PRF1 mutations induce a complete or partial reduction of the synthesis of the perforin protein, resulting in impairment of the granule-mediated cytotoxic machinery of NK and T cells. (haematologica.org)
  • cell membrane
  • E(a), the activation energy required for the permeation of water through the cell membrane, was 10,700, and 12,000 cal/mol under hyper- and hypotonic conditions, respectively. (jove.com)
  • target
  • a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More. (uniprot.org)
  • Lentiviral transduction of the NFASC-NTRK1 fusion gene in NIH 3T3 cells increased proliferation in vitro, colony formation in soft agar, and tumor formation in mice, suggesting the possibility that the fusion contributed to the initiation or maintenance of the fusion-positive GBMs, and therefore may be a rational drug target. (jove.com)
  • endocytosis
  • Cytological examination revealed the fact that mutant was faulty in vacuole fusion and autophagy and delayed in endocytosis also. (lecollege.org)
  • homologous
  • Given a protein sequence, a typical output from the I-TASSER server includes secondary structure prediction, predicted solvent accessibility of each residue, homologous template proteins detected by threading and structure alignments, up to five full-length tertiary structural models, and structure-based functional annotations for enzyme classification, Gene Ontology terms and protein-ligand binding sites. (jove.com)
  • highly conserved
  • Here we describe the p115 ARM-motifs for reasons of clarity and nomenclature and show that both sequence and structure are highly conserved among ARM-repeat proteins. (jove.com)
  • mechanism
  • Intracellular trafficking and communication between neurons are important examples of the many processes that rely on this mechanism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Perforin is a pore-forming protein with a mechanism of trans-membrane channel formation similar to that of complement component 9 (C9), with which it shows extensive structural similarity. (haematologica.org)
  • Here, we provide methods to measure the extent and mechanism of NC transport across a model cell barrier, which consists of a monolayer of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells grown on a porous membrane located in a transwell insert. (jove.com)
  • modulate
  • As the redox state of protein thiols greatly impacts three-dimensional protein structure and, consequently, function, redox modifications of protein thiols may directly modulate EV release in response to changes in the cell's redox environment. (springer.com)
  • Identification of the thiol-containing proteins that modulate EV release in pro-oxidant environments could provide a rationale for broad application of thiol group-containing antioxidants in chronic inflammatory diseases. (springer.com)
  • glucose
  • To investigate the impact of increasing Syn4 protein abundance on glucose homeostasis in vivo, we engineered tetracycline-repressible transgenic mice to overexpress Syn4 by fivefold in skeletal muscle and pancreas and threefold in adipose tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • mutant
  • Regarding the project on retinal cell differentiation, in 2013, we showed that retinal neurogenesis is delayed in zebrafish stem-loop binding protein 1 ( slbp1 ) mutant. (oist.jp)
  • Yeast two cross types and GST-pull down assays accepted that FgMon1 bodily interacts using a Rab GTPase FgRab7 which can be very important to the development infections membrane fusion and autophagy in mutant. (lecollege.org)
  • Besides the gene was recognized in a knockout mutant that cause hypersensitive to brefeldin A and monensin that interfere with intracellular protein transport processes27. (lecollege.org)
  • Here, we explore the role of GluR2-interacting proteins in AMPAR trafficking by assessing the trafficking behavior of wild-type and mutant forms of epitope-tagged GluR2 in hippocampal neurons. (pnas.org)
  • PCR-mediated mutagenesis was used to generate mutant constructs unable to interact with intracellular proteins. (pnas.org)
  • actin
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to monitor thiol isomerase mobilization in activated platelets in the presence and absence of actin polymerization (inhibited by latrunculin) and in the presence or absence of membrane fusion mediated by Munc13-4 (absent in platelets from Unc13dJinx mice). (ovid.com)
  • vacuole
  • Further evidences showed that Ccz1 and Mon1 are also essential for yeast homotypic vacuole fusion and regulating vesicle traffic at the tethering/docking stage8. (lecollege.org)
  • mRNA
  • Characterization of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent cells often includes the analysis of reference markers, both at the mRNA and protein level. (jove.com)