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  • Fatty Acids
  • The idea of lipid flow through a continuous system of membranes and vesicles was an alternative to the various membranes being independent entities that are formed from transport of free lipid components, such as fatty acids and sterols , through the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper we will focus on recent studies of regulatory mechanisms that modulate placental transport of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. (hindawi.com)
  • Triacylglycerols (TGs) are esters of fatty acids and glycerol and are the major form of stored energy in eukaryotic organisms. (aocs.org)
  • Instead, TGs in the small intestine are emulsified and digested by lipases producing 2-monoacylglycerol and unesterified fatty acids, which cross from the lumen of the gut into enterocytes. (aocs.org)
  • TGs are incorporated into chylomicrons in order to deliver dietary lipids through the lymphatic system to the circulation where the fatty acids are taken up by muscle, liver, adipose tissue, etc. (aocs.org)
  • Liver - In the liver, DGAT has a role in synthesizing TGs from either fatty acids synthesized de novo or from fatty acids taken up from the circulation. (aocs.org)
  • Fatty acids released by the hydrolysis of TGs stored in adipose tissue are reesterified to TGs by DGAT in the mammary gland. (aocs.org)
  • The unesterified fatty acids are taken up by adipocytes, re-esterified to TGs mainly by the Kennedy pathway involving DGAT and stored in cytosolic lipid droplets. (aocs.org)
  • When required, TGs in adipose tissue are hydrolyzed to fatty acids and glycerol, which are released into the circulation. (aocs.org)
  • mTOR
  • The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway integrates both intracellular and extracellular signals and serves as a central regulator of cell metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. (biologists.org)
  • We identified specific substitutions between amino acids 50 and 190 in the N-terminal region of TSC1 that result in reduced steady state levels of the protein and lead to increased mTOR signalling. (beds.ac.uk)
  • However, recent studies of TSC1 missense variants identified in bladder cancers [ 17 ] and in patients with TSC [ 11 ] have shown that TSC1 amino acid substitutions can be pathogenic, reducing steady state levels of TSC1 and leading to increased mTOR activity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Protein
  • Bowie et al, Deciphering the Message in Protein Sequences: Tolerance to Amino Acid Substitutions, Science, 247:1306-1310, Mar. 1990. (patentgenius.com)
  • The enhancement of immune responsiveness observed in mice fed the 28% L diet was moderately reduced by the addition of phenylalanine to the diet, indicating that the lower level of this amino acid in the L protein may be of some significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, with the progress in medical technology, in vivo detection of pathological changes in the brain directly via advanced imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)) and indirectly via biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (tau, phosphorylated tau and 42 amino acid isoform of beta-amyloid protein (Aβ42)), is made possible nowadays [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • ASCT2
  • ASCT2 also plays an important role in the development of a variety of cancers such as melanoma by transporting amino acid nutrients such as glutamine into the proliferating tumors. (binghamton.edu)
  • sequence
  • Another cautionary illustration of amino acids' power is the gamut of diseases (most notably, sickle cell anemia) that impair or claim the lives of those whose amino acids are out of sequence or malfunctioning. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Based upon their amino acid sequence homology, plant aquaporins can be classified into four subfamilies ( 4 - 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • sugars
  • The geometry of the inner vestibule of BK channels was probed by examining the effects of different sugars in the intracellular solution on single-channel current amplitude (unitary current). (rupress.org)
  • glutamate
  • In E. coli , the acid-resistance systems 2 (AR2) and 3 (AR3) expel intracellular protons through two coupled processes: intracellular decarboxylation of glutamate (Glu) and arginine (Arg) by AR2 and AR3, respectively, and the exchange of the reaction products, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and agmatine (Agm), with extracellular Glu and Arg ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Substitutions
  • The pathogenic TSC1 amino acid substitutions are clustered within the conserved, hydrophobic N-terminal region of TSC1, indicating that this region plays an important role in TSC1 function. (beds.ac.uk)
  • For neutral amino acids, decreasing the size of the entrance to the inner cavity by substituting large side-chain amino acids at 321/324 decreased outward single-channel conductance, whereas increasing the size of the entrance with smaller side-chain substitutions had little effect. (nih.gov)
  • bacteria
  • It includes processes for the fermentative preparation of nucleotides, vitamins and L-amino acids using coryneform bacteria in which the sod gene is amplified. (google.com)
  • The invention provides nucleotide sequences encoding for the superoxide dismatase (sod) gene and a process for the fermentative preparation of nucleotides, vitamins and L-amino acids, in particular L-lysine using coryneform bacteria in which the sod gene is amplified. (google.com)
  • accumulation
  • Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, an NaCl treatment induced an intracellular accumulation of At PIP2;1 by exerting specific actions onto At PIP2;1 forms differing in their phosphorylation at Ser 283 to induce their accumulation in distinct intracellular structures. (mcponline.org)
  • Glycine
  • All of the amino acids in the human body, except glycine, are either right-hand or left-hand versions of the same molecule, meaning that in some amino acids the positions of the carboxyl group and the R -group are switched. (encyclopedia.com)
  • behave
  • These results demonstrate the pivotal role played by SNAT2 induction in the short-term hypertonic RVI and suggest that neutral amino acids behave as compatible osmolytes in hypertonically stressed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mutations
  • In this case, microdiversity would be the consequence of neutral mutations occurring between sweeps ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • vitamins
  • Nucleotides, vitamins and L-amino acids, in particular L-lysine, are used in the foodstuffs industry, in animal nutrition, in human medicine and in the pharmaceutical industry. (google.com)
  • Strains which are resistant to antimetabolites or which are auxotrophic for significant regulatory intermediates are obtained in this way and produce nucleotides, vitamins and amino acids. (google.com)