• Microbes have developed elaborate strategies to circumvent exposure to intracellular antibiotic molecules by blocking cellular activation or blocking granule fusion with the phagolysosome. (els.net)
  • Phagocytes kill microbes through the action of intracellular antibiotic molecules. (els.net)
  • Microbes have developed several strategies to circumvent killing of intracellular antibiotic molecules. (els.net)
  • Jan. 22, 2014 - A contest for the best technique of intracellular particle tracking (simultaneous tracking of the motions of hundreds and thousands of intracellular organelles, virions and even individual molecules ), that is an important issue in cellular biology and has applications in search for appropriate medicines against certain diseases (including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases), has found no undeniable winner. (chemistry2011.org)
  • No. 5,747,471, and entitled "Cationic Amphiphiles Containing Steroid Lipophilic Groups for Intracellular Delivery of Therapeutic Molecules", itself a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. (google.com)
  • No. 08/352,479 entitled "Cationic Amphiphiles for Intracellular Delivery of Therapeutic Molecules", as filed on Dec. 9, 1994, now U.S. Pat. (google.com)
  • We can apply this technique for intracellular trafficking by means of switchable photo-luminescence in mammalian cells in vitro, wherein the endocytic membrane-abundant anionic amphiphilic molecules participates in the 'de-caging' process," stated Pan. (eurekalert.org)
  • Intracellular reactions that depend on small numbers of molecules and the interaction between viral and cellular components result in highly heterogeneous infection outcomes. (aiche.org)
  • It now appears to be possible to continuously record changes in intracellular oxidation-reduction levels in terms of the fluorescence of reduced pyridine nucleotide in mitochondria of various tissues and organs in situ. (sciencemag.org)
  • Many physical membrane-disruption or pore-forming techniques for intracellular delivery, however, result in poor cell viability, while most carrier-mediated techniques suffer from suboptimal endosomal escape and hence cytoplasmic or nuclear targeting. (rsc.org)
  • These findings extend the sphere of influence of antibodies to the intracellular domain and have broad implications for immunity. (mdpi.com)
  • Separation of calcium fluxes in different cell compartments and evaluation of the role of calcium receptors and channels in the plasma membrane and membranes of the intracellular organelles allows experimenters to begin estimation of contributions of the respective events to the regulation of physiological functions of the cell, e.g., of synaptic plasticity of the neuron. (springer.com)
  • For acquiring a large amplitude and a high quality of neuronal signals, intracellular recording is a powerful methodology compared to extracellular recording to measure the voltage or current across the cell membranes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Intracellular recordings form a group of techniques used to measure with precision the voltage across, or electrical currents passing through, neuronal or other cellular membranes by inserting an electrode inside the neuron. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Intracellular recording is an electrophysiology technique that inserts a glass microelectrode into a single cell (usually a neuron) to precisely measure its electrical activity (voltages across or currents passing through the cellular membranes). (adinstruments.com)
  • Regardless, its presence correlates with strain-specific virulence in a mouse model of infection and influences the dynamics of intracellular survival and proliferation ( 5 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Hence, MHC-I generally serves as a reporter of intracellular infection, while MHC-II senses the antigens present in the extracellular milieu. (frontiersin.org)
  • An intracellular-survival assay of S. pneumoniae in OECs showed a significant number of bacterial CFU recovered after 3 h of infection. (nih.gov)
  • These results define the antibody properties required to elicit an efficient intracellular immune response during viral infection. (uio.no)
  • Note that to interact with an intracellular receptor, the ligand must first get past the cellular membrane. (google.com)
  • PKA phosphorylates PLN and RyR, both of which contribute to an increased intracellular Ca 2+ transient and enhanced cellular contractility (pink zone signal). (jci.org)
  • Harnessing the ability to measure intracellular activity could be instrumental in developing a field that has not been widely studied: thermal biology at the cellular level. (photonics.com)
  • These results can become the basis for new and interesting designs for carbon-based materials for intracellular imaging probing cellular function and to study other biological processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The evidence for the influence of an intracellular AT 1 -like angiotensin II receptor on intercellular communication is compelling and supports the concept of an intracrine angiotensin II system in the heart, with possible implications for cardiac conduction and contractility in health and disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • This review summarises our current understanding of TRIM21's role as a cytosolic Fc receptor and briefly discusses pathological circumstances where intracellular antibodies have been described, or are hypothesized to occur, and may benefit from further investigations of the role of TRIM21. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present study, two variants of fluorescently tagged ErbB3 were generated: one with the EGFP-tag on the C-terminal (intracellular) end and one with the EGFP-tag on the N-terminal (extracellular) end of the receptor. (uio.no)
  • Similarities in intracellular pathogenic strategies between phylogenetically distant microbes suggest convergent evolution. (nih.gov)
  • Although often viewed as a specialized adaptation, the capacity for intracellular survival may be widespread among microbes, thus questioning whether the intracellular lifestyle warrants a category of special distinctiveness. (nih.gov)
  • It features intracellular trafficking pathways and characteristics of intracellular niches of individual microbes. (ovid.com)
  • A technological challenge in electrophysiology is intracellular recordings within a thick biological tissue. (eurekalert.org)
  • This will eventually lead to realization of multisite, depth-intracellular recordings for biological tissues, including brain slices and brain in vivo, which are beyond the capability of conventional intracellular devices. (eurekalert.org)
  • As an exciting alternative, genetically encoded RNA-based molecular sensors (GERMS) have emerged over the past few years for the intracellular imaging and detection of various biological targets. (mdpi.com)
  • 95% cell viability, enabling facile, dosage-controlled intracellular delivery for a wide variety of biological applications. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this animation, you can see how one S. typhimurium invades an epithelial cell of the intestinal tract, survives the intracellular defense mechanisms of the host cell, and multiplies. (hhmi.org)
  • Intracellular pH regulates metabolism by poorly understood mechanisms, but biosensors are likely to be important in this process. (sciencemag.org)
  • This important volume also deals with major known signaling mechanisms and several representative intracellular signaling networks in plants, integrating comprehensive reviews and insights from leading experts in the field. (wiley.com)
  • Intracellular transport is the movement of vesicles and substances within a cell . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since intracellular transport heavily relies on microtubules for movement, the components of the cytoskeleton play a vital role in trafficking vesicles between organelles and the plasma membrane by providing mechanical support. (wikipedia.org)
  • But in reality microtubules are laid out regularly within each cell, and cargos such as mitochondria, membrane vesicles and the like are moved along these rails in a process called intracellular transport. (u-tokyo.ac.jp)
  • During both these phases there is a substantial influx of Ca 2+ that accumulates in the cytoplasm and in intracellular Ca 2+ stores like endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (ki.se)
  • We assume that methods using such nanoparticles can be an alternative to existing technologies of intracellular delivery of biomolecules for use in gene therapy, targeted drug application, obtaining modified cell cultures and other biomedical research," explains Timofey Pylaev, one of the authors of the study from Russian Academy of Sciences. (nanowerk.com)
  • This thesis explores the use of nanomaterials for bioimaging using conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) and porous silicon nanoneedles (PSNs) for intracellular biosensing. (bl.uk)
  • Following binding of intracellular antibody, TRIM21 acts as both antiviral effector and sensor for innate immune signalling. (mdpi.com)
  • Comparison of dendritic fields of layer III pyramidal neurons in striate and extrastriate visual areas of the marmoset: A lucifer yellow intracellular injection study. (psu.edu)
  • Bruce: I think that most of the extracellular deposition must come from extracellular Aβ, but the intracellular aggregates from dead neurons may serve as seeds. (alzforum.org)
  • Another interpretation and model is that the C-terminal cholesterol acts to target Hedgehog to an intracellular trafficking pathway that prepares Hedgehog for release in an encapsulated form. (sciencemag.org)
  • The needle length exceeds that of the conventional nanowire/nanotube-based intracellular devices, thus expanding the range of applications of nanodevices in intracellular recording, such as deep tissue penetration. (eurekalert.org)
  • When the investigator desires to record neuronal membrane signals reliably with high signal-to-noise ratio in situ , that is, in tissue, the intracellular recording technique has to be employed. (scholarpedia.org)
  • During an acute respiratory acidosis, reductions in pH e are associated with qualitatively similar reductions in intracellular tissue pH (pH i ). (biologists.org)
  • HeLa cell cultures infected with adenovirus type 4 were studied by light and phase-contrast microscopy and by the fluorescent antibody technique for visualization of intracellular antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Project Professor Nobutaka Hirokawa of the University of Tokyo's Graduate School of Medicine, who has long been investigating the mechanism of intracellular transport, describes the incredible power of its tiny workers. (u-tokyo.ac.jp)
  • In the ensuing arms race, an intracellular inflammatory host response would have evolved to limit viral activities. (queensu.ca)
  • Study of these intracellular viral processes can provide us with vital clues that can help us develop new vaccines, antiviral medications, and even help us engineer viruses to treat cancer. (aiche.org)
  • In this paper, we developed new chemical kinetic models -- both deterministic and stochastic -- to describe the relevant intracellular viral reproductive processes such as activation, transcription, replication, translation, and degradation. (aiche.org)
  • This intracellular humoral response relies on opsonized viral particles reaching the cytosol intact but the antigenic and kinetic constraints involved are unknown. (uio.no)
  • The intracellular staining method of chromosomes with DNA specific fluorochromes will be improved especially for dual parameter (DNA content and base pair composition quantification) intracellular flow karyotype analysis. (europa.eu)
  • In view of their ability for the general detection of a wide range of target analytes, and the modular and simple design principle, GERMS are becoming a popular choice for intracellular analysis. (mdpi.com)
  • These studies reinforce the notion that muscle insulin resistance in obese NIDDM patients is characterized by a panoply of intracellular defects in glucose metabolism and insulin action. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this short review is described the toxicity of modified intracellular tau and that of extracellular tau that could be released into the extracellular space after neuron death. (frontiersin.org)
  • 3 The term intracrine was applied to the actions of hormones synthesized intracellularly as well as to the intracellular actions of hormone internalized from the extracellular space. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2019. "Intracellular Imaging with Genetically Encoded RNA-Based Molecular Sensors. (mdpi.com)
  • Resting [Ca2+]i is maintained low by the action of Ca2+ pumps on the intracellular stores and plasma membrane, with the result that gradients for Ca2+ movement into the cytosol from either of these two sources are very large and there is considerable potential for achieving rapid increases in [Ca2+]i. (biologists.org)
  • viruses and mycobacteria also hijack them to penetrate the cell ) responsible for intracellular transport, and disorders of this vesicular transport may cause a vast variety of diseases. (chemistry2011.org)
  • Over the last 20 years, evidence has accumulated to indicate that many, and perhaps all, peptide growth factors and hormones operate in part through an intracellular mode of action. (ahajournals.org)