• Gastroduodenal mucosal alkaline secretion and mucosal protection. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, there was no correlation in ability of invasive organisms to evoke fluid secretion or in the intensity of mucosal inflammation, number of intramucosal salmonellae, or in ability to disseminate from the rabbit ileum. (jci.org)
  • These observations suggest that, as is the case in shigellosis, mucosal invasion may be a necessary factor for the intestinal fluid loss in salmonellosis. (jci.org)
  • Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction has been implicated in numerous health conditions such as: food allergies, microbial infections, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, and septic shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • The commensal microbial species that inhabit the gut are considered by some to be part of the intestinal mucosal barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • and (3) binding the mucosal receptors for quail galectin with plant lectins could specifically reduce the rate of baseline secretion of quail mucin. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infected rats responded with the formation of hemagglutinating antibodies in both serum and intestinal secretions. (eurekamag.com)
  • We propose that in CS rats the regulatory mechanism(s) for PRL secretion comprise coordinated action of neuroendocrine dopaminergic and OT cells, both governed by the daily rhythm of VIP-ergic output from the SCN. (cellml.org)
  • present a mathematical model of the mechanisms regulating the rhythmic secretion of prolactin in rats (see figure below). (cellml.org)
  • The existence of a diurnal rhythm in GLP-1 secretion in response to an oral glucose load has been demonstrated in rats [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been hypothesized that by excluding duodenum and jejunum from nutrient transit, this procedure may reduce putative signals from the proximal intestine that negatively influence insulin sensitivity ( S I ). To test this hypothesis, resection or bypass of different intestinal segments were performed in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 inhibition enhances intestinal fatty acid oxidation process and reduces energy intake in rats. (blinkimp.org)
  • Cholinergic stimulation of amylase secretion from pancreatic acinar cells studied with muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mutant rats. (blinkimp.org)
  • GLP-1 reduces intestinal lymph flow, triglyceride absorption, in addition to apolipoprotein production in rats. (blinkimp.org)
  • To determine the relative contributions of neural reflexes and intestinal hormones to the inhibition of gastric acid secretion by intestinal acidification, rats with an extrinsically denervated, transplanted segment of jejunum, and those with an innervated segment of jejunum, were studied. (nyu.edu)
  • Gastric acid secretion was inhibited by intrajejunal acid (pH 2.5) by 79% in the innervated rats and by 64% in the transplanted group. (nyu.edu)
  • To examine the hormonal mediators, the effects of a somatostatin monoclonal antibody and a CCK-A receptor antagonist (L 364718) on acid-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion were studied in transplanted rats. (nyu.edu)
  • Using 10-hour fasted male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with stereotaxic cannulae into an extrahypothalamic region termed the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and vascular catheters to enable direct DVC infusion and blood sampling, respectively, the rate of hepatic VLDL-TG secretion was measured following tyloxapol (an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase) injection. (ahajournals.org)
  • Luminal Ag challenge of intestinal segments from sensitized rats results in a rapid (∼3 min) secretory response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Fatty acids activate the receptor in vitro in association with stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Synaptogamin-7 KO mice exhibited defective GLP-1 secretion in response to oral glucose and knockdown of synaptogamin-7 in GLUTag L cells reduced GLP-1 secretion in vitro. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Deleting an actin crosslinking domain from the T6SS apparatus returned intestinal motility to normal and thwarted expulsion, without weakening V. cholerae 's ability to kill Aeromonas in vitro . (aps.org)
  • Although in vitro experiments demonstrated that catecholamine degradation was enhanced by NO in a dose-dependent manner, the dominant factor contributing to the reduction in catecholamine appearance in the perfusate was specific inhibition of catecholamine secretion. (biologists.org)
  • An in vitro strain model that simulates RMS has different effects on fibroblast proliferation and interleukin secretion than does an in vitro model that simulates IOMT. (jaoa.org)
  • In this study, we extend our in vitro findings and determine that IL-13 increases IL-10 production from Th17-polarized cells and that IL-13-induced IL-10 production negatively regulates the secretion of IL-17A and IL-21. (jimmunol.org)
  • Glucose enhances rotavirus enterotoxin-induced intestinal chloride secretion. (nih.gov)
  • however, glucose may have a detrimental impact on these patients, because it increases chloride secretion and presumably water loss. (nih.gov)
  • Glucose increased NSP4-stimulated chloride secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Glucose increased NSP4-stimulated increase in short-circuit current measurements (I sc) and net chloride secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Since glucose enhances intestinal chloride secretion and fails to increase sodium absorption in the presence of NSP4, glucose-based oral rehydration solutions may not be ideal for the management of rotaviral diarrhea. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, evidence from preclinical models supports a functional link between intestinal bitter taste receptor (BTRs) and gastrointestinal hormone secretion, and the outcomes of recent studies indicate that stimulation of intestinal BTRs may be used to modulate gastrointestinal function, to diminish energy intake and limit postprandial blood glucose excursions in humans. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an intestinal hormone with potent insulinotropic effects that are essential to the maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition to glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion, GLP-1 shows other favorable effects, increasing β-cell proliferation in rodents, as well as enhancing β-cell survival in both rodent and in human islets ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the possibility that glucose might also stimulate anion secretion. (physiology.org)
  • In addition to enhancing active sodium absorption, glucose increased intracellular calcium and stimulated electrogenic chloride secretion. (physiology.org)
  • Calcium imaging studies showed increased intracellular calcium when intestinal cells were exposed to glucose. (physiology.org)
  • Niflumic acid, but not glibenclamide, inhibited glucose-stimulated chloride secretion in mouse small intestine and decreased whole-cell conductance in Caco-2 cells. (physiology.org)
  • Glucose-induced chloride secretion may explain the failure of glucose-based ORS to markedly reduce stool output in acute diarrhoea. (physiology.org)
  • Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is one of the incretins, peptide hormones released from the gastrointestinal tract into circulation in response to nutrient ingestion, that potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ( 5 , 16 , 35 ). (physiology.org)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), released from gut endocrine L cells in response to glucose, regulates appetite, insulin secretion, and gut motility. (pnas.org)
  • Isolated small bowel and intestinal villi from α-gustducin null mice showed markedly defective GLP-1 secretion in response to glucose. (pnas.org)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretins, peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine L and K cells, respectively, that augment insulin secretion after oral intake of glucose ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • It regulates the secretion and sensitivity of insulin while suppressing glucagon secretion and decreasing postprandial glucose levels. (hindawi.com)
  • GLP-1 decreases blood glucose levels during hyperglycemia by stimulating insulin secretion and reducing glucose-dependent glucagon secretion [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The GLP-1 secretion is regulated by a complex neuroendocrine loop (proximal-distal endocrine loop), involving the enteric nervous system, the afferent and efferent vagus nerves, and the duodenal hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 16 ] suggested that GLP-1 secretion was not impaired in diabetic patients with well controlled blood glucose, while it was diminished in those with poor glycemic control or those with a longer duration of T2DM. (hindawi.com)
  • The glycated serum (GS) and high levels of glucose (HG) may directly alter the function of neuroendocrine cells secreting this hormone by regulating different pathways of GLP-1 secretion [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Two theories have been proposed to explain how small bowel manipulations can improve glucose metabolism: the distal (or hindgut) hypothesis suggests that diabetes control results from the rapid delivery of nutrient chyme to the distal intestine, enhancing physiologic signals that improve glucose metabolism (i.e., increased incretins, specifically glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP- or increased intestinal uptake of glucose) ( 12 , 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Oral glucose tolerance and isoglycemic glucose infusion tests were used to assess incretin effect and GLP-1 and GLP-2 secretion, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose were used to measure peripheral insulin sensitivity and endogenous glucose production. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes results from decreased insulin sensitivity and inadequate insulin secretion, which associate with diminished incretin response and subclinical chronic inflammation and subsequent impaired glucose tolerance ( 1 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hyperglycemia is due to concomitant insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretion due to beta-cell function impairment over time, resulting in failure to control blood glucose levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, VSL♯3 feeding studies in IL-10-/- mice, a model for experimental colitis, revealed that VSL♯3 has local, intestinal compartment-specific protective effects on the development of inflammation. (ovid.com)
  • These data suggest the hypothesis that colonization with ETBF may promote acute or chronic intestinal inflammation in humans. (asm.org)
  • PMN are an important source of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with intestinal inflammation and can be downregulated by IL-10.PMN from patients with IBD are primed to secrete enhanced amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines accompanied by detection of corresponding mRNAs in comparison with normal controls. (uni-kiel.de)
  • This finding is not specific for IBD but rather reflects intestinal inflammation in general. (uni-kiel.de)
  • Protective effect of 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A against intestinal inflammation is mediated through PI3-kinase/Akt/mTOR and NF-κB signaling pathways. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Intestinal pathogens have developed strategies to regulate intestinal immunity and inflammation in order to establish or prolong infection. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • CCL20 and interleukin (IL)-8 secretion and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (nih.gov)
  • Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) play a key role in the inflammatory response to colonizing or invading microorganisms via the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The authors hypothesized that the RMS model would increase fibroblast proliferation and proinflammatory interleukin secretion, while the IOMT model would reverse these effects. (jaoa.org)
  • 05). Fibroblasts that underwent IOMT, when analyzed at 24 hours after IOMT, did not display increased interleukin secretion or proliferation. (jaoa.org)
  • Results: Increased messenger RNA expression and secretion of immunoreactive interleukin 8, growth-related peptide α, and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were detected in rotavirus-infected cells. (utmb.edu)
  • CD28 ligation but not CD86 ligation resulted in interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion by eosinophils, whereas IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 were not detected. (rupress.org)
  • Accordingly, we have named these genes "VAS" genes for virulence-associated secretion, and we propose that these genes encode a prototypic "type VI" secretion system. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the genes encoding the VAS-related, type VI secretion system likely play an important conserved function in microbial pathogenesis and represent an additional class of targets for vaccine and antimicrobial drug-based therapies. (pnas.org)
  • We have used precipitin tests to detect antibodies to 10 dietary proteins in the serum (71 cases) and intestinal secretions (51 cases) of a group of children. (bmj.com)
  • Proteins encoded in the EHEC locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island are known to contribute to this pathogen's adherence to epithelial cells and intestinal colonization. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • An EHEC adfO mutant exhibited marked reductions in adherence to HeLa cells and in the secretion of several proteins into the supernatant. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • YodA, one of these secreted proteins, was found to be a substrate of the EHEC pO157-encoded type 2 secretion system (T2SS). (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus elicits gastroenteritis by deploying Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS) to deliver effector proteins into epithelial cells of the human intestinal tract. (nuigalway.ie)
  • We profiled mRNA of 18 SNARE proteins in DCs in response to activation with a panel of three Toll-like receptors (TLR) ligands and show differential expression of SNAREs in response to their stimulus and subsequent secretion patterns. (frontiersin.org)
  • The organisms that employ a type III secretion system use a molecular syringe to deliver effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The results reveal a role for selected ESCRT components and accessory proteins in exosome secretion and composition by HeLa-CIITA. (biologists.org)
  • Role of Intestinal Bitter Sensing in Enteroendocrine Hormone Secretion and Metabolic Control. (wellnessresources.com)
  • This review summarizes current evidence about the expression and function of intestinal BTRs in relation to enteroendocrine hormone release and discusses the clinical implications of this pathway for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. (wellnessresources.com)
  • The secretion of Growth Hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) from the pituitary is regulated by a variety of hypothalamic factors, which are mostly neuropeptides and biogenic amines. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The parasympathetic nervous system, via the vagus nerve , and the hormone gastrin stimulate the parietal cell to produce gastric acid, both directly acting on parietal cells and indirectly, through the stimulation of the secretion of the hormone histamine from enterochromaffine-like cells (ELC). (bionity.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from GnRH neurons and its modulation by neuropeptides are essential for mammalian reproduction. (springer.com)
  • Castellano JM, Navarro VM, Fernández-Fernández R, Roa J, Vigo E, Pineda R, Steiner RA, Aguilar E, Pinilla L, Tena-Sempere M (2006) Effects of galanin-like peptide on luteinizing hormone secretion in the rat: sexually dimorphic responses and enhanced sensitivity at male puberty. (springer.com)
  • This hormone increases secretions from the intestines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • including peristalsis, water balance, hormone secretions and intestinal barrier homeostasis. (nature.com)
  • As the largest component of the peripheral nervous system, the ENS enables the GI tract to perform critical life functions such as peristalsis, gut hormone secretions, and water balance during gut homeostasis 1 . (nature.com)
  • In order to formulate dietary recommendations based on scientific considerations, it is necessary to understand how intestinal resection alters the physiology of the intestine. (oley.org)
  • Surprisingly, displacement was independent of T6SS-mediated killing of Aeromonas , driven instead by T6SS-induced enhancement of zebrafish intestinal movements that led to expulsion of the resident commensal by the host. (aps.org)
  • Here we investigated IEC responses to various pathogenic and commensal bacteria as well as the modulatory effects of commensal bacteria on pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion. (nih.gov)
  • This study is the first to demonstrate that a commensal strain can attenuate CCL20 secretion in HT-29 IECs. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteroides fragilis is a normal intestinal commensal and is identified in the colonic flora of up to 80% of children and adults ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • The normal adult small bowel receives about 5-6 liters of endogenous secretions (digestive juices) and 2-3 liters of exogenous fluids (oral fluids or fluids delivered via a tube) per day. (oley.org)
  • Here, I review the neuropeptides that have been shown to act directly and that may also act indirectly, on GnRH neurons, the reproduction-related processes with which the neuropeptides may be associated or the physiological information they may convey, as well as their cognate receptors, signaling pathways and roles in the modulation of GnRH neuronal firing, [Ca 2+ ] i , GnRH secretion and reproduction. (springer.com)
  • These data support the hypothesis that chemokine secretion by enterocytes may play a role in the initiation and modulation of the immune response to rotavirus infection. (utmb.edu)
  • A, Schematic representation of working hypothesis: glycine, a coagonist of the NR1 subunit of the N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor, potentiates the activation of NMDA receptors in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and lowers the secretion of hepatic triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-TG). (ahajournals.org)
  • Both entero-adherent Escherichia coli O157:H7 and entero-invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increased apically-directed IL-6 secretion and bi-directional IL-8 secretion from epithelial monolayers, but only IL-6 secretion evoked by E. coli was reduced by morphine acting through a naloxone-sensitive mechanism. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, the respective type 4 and 5 Toll -like receptor agonists, lipopolysaccharide and flagellin, increased IL-8 secretion from monolayers, which was also attenuated by morphine pretreatment. (mdpi.com)
  • These data suggest that normal mucus release requires concurrent HCO3- secretion and that the characteristically aggregated mucus observed in mucin-secreting organs in individuals with CF may be a consequence of defective HCO3- transport. (jci.org)
  • High rates of HCO3- secretion and Cl- absorption against adverse gradients in the marine teleost intestine: the involvement of an electrogenic anion exchanger and H+-pump metabolon? (biologists.org)
  • Conclusion and Outlook These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of VSL♯3-derived L. casei on IP-10 secretion in IEC is an important probiotic mechanism that contributes to the anti-inflammatory effects of VSL♯3 in specific subsets of patients with IBD. (ovid.com)
  • We investigated the mechanism of fat-induced GIP secretion and the impact of FABP5-related GIP response on diet-induced obesity (DIO). (physiology.org)
  • 4. Basal intestinal short-circuit current was the same in both groups. (clinsci.org)
  • Treatment of STC-1 cells with 300 ng/ml of pertussis toxin for either 4 or 24 h did not significantly affect either basal release of CCK or L-phenylalanine-stimulated secretion. (rti.org)
  • A possible role for endogenously produced NO was established by demonstrating that stimulus-evoked (depolarizing levels of KCl or electrical field stimulation) catecholamine secretion was markedly stimulated in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors l -NAME and 7-NI. (biologists.org)
  • Upon switching heifers in the L-OVX, L-OVXE, and L-INT treatments to the C diet, all characteristics of LH secretion changed markedly within 14 days to levels similar to those detected in the C treatments. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sensitivity of this alkaline secretion to some peripheral stimulators markedly depends on the feeding status. (diva-portal.org)