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  • lumen
  • The highly vascularized mucosa lies immediately adjacent to an anaerobic lumen containing trillions of metabolically active microbes (i.e. the microbiome) that results in one of the more austere tissue microenvironments in the body. (nih.gov)
  • Nonfat nutrients appear to increase diamine oxidase in the intestinal lumen. (physiology.org)
  • Related work has shown that, in addition to transporting IgG across the intestinal epithelial barrier into the lumen, the human neonatal FcR can recycle bound luminal Ag back into the GALT for processing by DC and presentation to T cells in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • enzyme
  • Histamine, one of the substrates, when given intravenously or intraduodenally, increases the enzyme activity in the intestinal lymph as well ( 24 ). (physiology.org)
  • Ingestion of olive oil was also observed to increase intestinal lymph diamine oxidase activity ( 26 , 27 ), but how the long chain triglycerides release the enzyme from its source is still unclear. (physiology.org)
  • The present study examined the action of all major food constituents on the release of intestinal diamine oxidase and compared their effects on enzyme transport into the intestinal lymph and on tissue content. (physiology.org)
  • histological
  • This study evaluated the use of probiotics and prebiotics on the histological and morphological indexes of the intestinal mucosa of broilers at 21 days of age. (scielo.br)
  • Concluding, beneficial effects were seen in histological indexes of the intestinal mucosa with the use of probiotics and prebiotics at 21 days of age. (scielo.br)
  • The patients remained entirely symptom-free and, more important, the jejunal mucosa was undamaged as judged by appearances under dissecting and light microscopes, quantitative histological studies, and disaccharidase content. (bmj.com)
  • bacteria
  • Since absorption is totally dependent on the mechanisms that occur in the intestinal mucosa, the manipulation of probiotics (microbial supplements comprised of specific bacteria or fungi) together with prebiotics (non-digestible ingredients that are beneficial to the host because they selectively stimulate growth and/or the activity of certain bacteria in the intestine) have been used to improve performance and, consequently, the energetic efficiency of the intestine (Dobrogosz et al . (scielo.br)
  • On the other hand, prebiotics effects are based on reduction of the growth of many pathogenic or non-pathogenic intestinal bacteria by means of the pH reduction that results from increased lactic acid levels in the ceca (Choi et al . (scielo.br)
  • Diamine oxidase metabolizes polyamines and histamine ( 2 , 18 ), and, on the basis of this action and the extracellular location, it is postulated that it prevents the absorption of polyamines and histamine originating from ingested food and intestinal bacteria ( 17 , 24 ). (physiology.org)
  • Biotin deficiency rarely occurs among healthy people because the daily requirement of biotin is low, many foods provide adequate amounts of it, intestinal bacteria synthesize small amounts of it, and the body effectively scavenges and recycles it from bodily waste. (wikipedia.org)
  • ileum
  • The mechanism by which baicalin modulated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the mucosa of distal ileum was investigated in a rat model of acute endo-toxemia induced by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In summary, baicalin could ameliorate LPS-induced iNOS and NO overproduction in mucosa of rat terminal ileum via inhibition of p38 signalling cascade and activation of PPARγ pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It is produced and secreted by the intestinal glands in the ileum and the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colitis
  • Loss of intestinal core 1-derived O-glycans causes spontaneous colitis in mice," Journal of Clinical Investigation , vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 1657-1666, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • nutrients
  • Therefore, there is lower incidence of infectious processes, and the functions of secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients can be appropriately performed by the mucosa (Iji & Tivey, 1998). (scielo.br)
  • It is also unclear whether nutrients other than fat have an effect on intestinal diamine oxidase mobilization. (physiology.org)
  • protein
  • The marked up-regulation of survivin expression in Apc Min/− tumor cells may signify that abnormal expression of the anti-apoptotic protein in intestinal cells depends on the loss of both Apc copies, thus allowing Apc null tumor cells to escape from apoptosis which may contribute to cancer induction and progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Erepsin is a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices and contains a group of enzymes that digest peptones into amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the secretion of secretin is increased by the products of protein digestion bathing the mucosa of the upper small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastric
  • Endoscopic image of gastric antral vascular ectasia seen as a radial pattern around the pylorus before (top) and after (bottom) treatment with argon plasma coagulation Endoscopic image of Barrett's esophagus, which is the area of red mucosa projecting like a tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino acids sequences of secretin have some similarities to that of glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP). (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreas
  • They determined that a substance secreted by the intestinal lining stimulates the pancreas after being transported via the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modulation
  • Modulation of Notch processing by γ -secretase inhibitors causes intestinal goblet cell metaplasia and induction of genes known to specify gut secretory lineage differentiation," Toxicological Sciences , vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 341-358, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • cells
  • These findings not only are consistent with down regulation of survivin expression by Apc, but they must also be interpreted in view of the Apc genotype of intestinal Apc Min cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Primary crypt cells of suckling mice displayed a significantly increased affinity to pepsin and collagenase solubilised intestinal biomatrix when compared with plastic and fibronectin. (bmj.com)
  • Second, certain populations of T and B cells that are unique to the GALT play a role in directing the responses to intestinal Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • It was also found not to be unique to intestinal mucosa and is present widely in many other cells and organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • A cell free biomatrix consisting of native interstitial collagens, basement membrane fragments and microfibrils was extracted from the lamina propria of human intestinal mucosa. (bmj.com)
  • Excessive alcohol consumption Excessive consumption of antidiuretics or inadequate levels of antidiuretic hormone Intestinal malabsorption caused by short bowel syndrome Ketogenic Diet Biotin is a coenzyme for five carboxylases in the human body (propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, and 2 forms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • When it occurs in the intestines of dogs, and more rarely humans, it causes a disease known as "intestinal lymphangiectasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • This action of butyrate in the mucosa results in increased expression of immunosuppressive cytokines within the lamina propia. (nih.gov)
  • treat
  • A single dose of albendazole is sufficient to treat intestinal infestations by A. duodenale or Necator americanus Intestinal capillariasis, as an alternative to mebendazole Mansonelliasis when caused by Mansonella perstans. (wikipedia.org)
  • oral mucosa
  • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome can cause dark spots on the oral mucosa or on the lips or the skin around the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various compounds present in the nut, most importantly arecoline (the primary psychoactive ingredient which is similar to nicotine), contribute to histologic changes in the oral mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stomach
  • Clinical research in neurogastroenterology focuses mainly on the study of common motility disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, the damage of the mucosa of the esophagus caused by rising stomach acid through the lower esophageal sphincter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease
  • Consistently, we observed in inflammatory bowel disease specimens that TNFR1 was constitutively phosphorylated on S381 in those inflammatory T cells, which had accumulated in high numbers in the inflamed mucosa. (jimmunol.org)
  • include
  • Other traditional uses include the removal of tapeworms and other intestinal parasites by swallowing a few teaspoons of powdered areca nut, drunk as a decoction, or by taking tablets containing the extracted alkaloids. (wikipedia.org)