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  • germ cells
  • In 1873, August Weismann postulated the equivalence of the maternal and paternal germ cells for heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • speculated that PSP1, which is highly concentrated in the testis, may regulate the germ cells' early mRNA processing and assist in chromatin remodeling and nuclear shaping during spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, such as yeast, which undergo closed mitosis, the nuclear membrane stays intact during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • cleavage furrow
  • Animal cells form an actin-myosin contractile ring within the equatorial region of the cell membrane that constricts to form the cleavage furrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cleavage furrow mechanism in animal cells is a complex network of actin and myosin filaments, Golgi vesicles and Calcium dependent channels enabling the cell to break apart, reseal and form new daughter cells with complete membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • a structure known as a cell plate forms midway between the divided nuclei, which gradually develops into a separating membrane. (prezi.com)
  • Then two nuclei form around the chromatids at the two ends of the cell. (goodrichscience.com)
  • Unlike mammalian red blood cells, those of other vertebrates still contain nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Franz Meyen was a strong opponent of this view, having already described cells multiplying by division and believing that many cells would have no nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, a nuclear enriched non-coding RNA (termed CTNRNA) was identified that specifically localised to paraspeckles in the nuclei of several cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • gamete
  • Because each gamete has half the genetic material of the mother cell, this fusion results in a zygote with the correct amount of genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cancer
  • These treatments can't distinguish normal cells from cancer cells so kill both. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Increases access of nutrients to cancer cells so are more succeptible to treatment. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Eribulin mesylate (eribulin) is a synthetic analogue of the marine-sponge natural product halichondrin B. Eribulin exhibits potent antiproliferative activities against a variety of human cancer cell t. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These data suggest survivin might provide a new target for cancer therapy that would discriminate between transformed and normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • In particular, the G2 checkpoint arrests cells in G2 in response to DNA damage through inhibitory regulation of CDK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • it is often a biochemical alternative to the self-destruction of such a damaged cell by apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In programmed cell death, interphase is followed or preempted by apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The survivin protein functions to inhibit caspase activation, thereby leading to negative regulation of apoptosis or programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis, the process of programmed cell death, involves complex signaling pathways and cascades of molecular events. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adult organisms, apoptosis is needed to maintain differentiated tissue by striking the balance between proliferation and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian cells have two main pathways that lead to apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The adaptive function of the nuclear membrane may have been to serve as a barrier to protect the genome from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the cells' pre-mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Interphase (also known as ' interkinesis ') is the period in which the cell is not dividing. (ivyroses.com)
  • In spite of extensive and detailed analyses in the steps and mechanisms regarding the syntheses and assembly of the ribosome, little is known as to the spatial and temporal dynamics of these processes in living cells. (rupress.org)
  • To ensure the proper division of the cell, there are control mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known that intracellular proteases called caspases degrade the cellular contents of the cell by proteolysis upon activation of the death pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulator of cell cycle RGCC (RGCC) also known as response gene to complement 32 protein (RGC-32) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGCC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • subphases
  • However, there has been little explanation on the fundamental relationship of calcium signals and their associated receptors with the interphase subphases. (go.jp)
  • Based on these results, we propose that receptor expression and calcium signals are functionally distinct within individual interphase subphases. (go.jp)
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Autophagy contributes to various cellular processes, including innate immunity, development, and programmed cell death (PCD) in multicellular organisms. (go.jp)
  • Docetaxel is an antineoplastic agent that acts by means of disrupting the microtubular network in cells that is essential for mitotic and interphase cellular functions. (medpdfarticles.com)
  • In in vitro clonogenic assays, it has been found that Docetaxel is citotoxic for several tumoural murine and human cellular lines and against human tumour cells which have been recently excised in clonogenic assays. (medpdfarticles.com)
  • TGF-β regulates a variety of different cellular developmental processes including growth, differentiation, proliferation, and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular content of Ki-67 protein markedly increases during cell progression through S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known that intracellular proteases called caspases degrade the cellular contents of the cell by proteolysis upon activation of the death pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression of the cell
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • APC16 is a bona fide subunit of human APC/C: it is present in APC/C complexes throughout the cell cycle, the phenotype of APC16-depleted cells copies depletion of other APC/C subunits, and APC16 is important for APC/C activity towards mitotic substrates. (biologists.org)
  • distinct
  • The results obtained revealed the existence of two distinct subcellular increases in [Ca 2+ ] i in a single individual G 1 -phase cell, suggesting variations between the early and late G 1 -phases of the cell cycle. (go.jp)
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue sections are fixed, then permeabilized to allow target accessibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fraction of Ki-67-positive tumor cells (the Ki-67 labeling index) is often correlated with the clinical course of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Stem cells may develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. (peircecollege.org)
  • All cells contain the complete genetic code of the entire organism, but there are several different kinds of cells. (wikibooks.org)
  • During the development process different cells are 'guided' into different functions and arranged into different patterns. (wikibooks.org)
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • centriole
  • One centriole originates from the mother cell and the other is replicated from the mother centriole during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, procentrioles begin to form near each preexisting centriole as the cell moves from the G1 phase to the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During S and G2 phase of the cell cycle, the procentrioles elongate until they reach the length of the older mother and daughter centrioles(which takes on characteristics of a mother centriole). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • This pathway normally regulates stress-induced cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • In the present study, we review the spatiotemporal dynamics of autophagic fluxes in plant cells and discuss their possible significance in PCD and metabolic regulation, with particular focus on plant reproductive development. (go.jp)
  • The regulation of intracellular events is of critical importance in proliferating cells. (go.jp)
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase
  • In addition to the Ca 2+ wave, the RT-PCR results indicated variability in the purinergic receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor subtypes within G 1 -phase cells. (go.jp)
  • Students were given a paper plate and had the opportunity to sketch and label each phase of the Cell Cycle. (catapultlearning.com)
  • They were also given the option to briefly describe on the plate what occurs in each phase of the Cell Cycle. (catapultlearning.com)
  • G1 phase ends when the cell moves into the S phase of interphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein synthesis, otherwise the cell will move into G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This partnership is found mainly in the S-phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • G0 is a resting phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle starts with this phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first phase within interphase, from the end of the previous M phase until the beginning of DNA synthesis, is called G1 (G indicating gap). (wikipedia.org)
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase, a cell has three options. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survivin expression is also highly regulated by the cell cycle and is only expressed in the G2-M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulators
  • Cell division is regulated by several regulators called proto-oncogenes which, because of they importance in cancer studies, are the subject of intensive investigation. (wikibooks.org)
  • pathways
  • Faithful partitioning of the genome to emerging daughter cells is ensured through the tight temporal coordination of the above individual events by molecular signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • 1210. Another important forex options live quotes resulting from the accruate of a cell- free transcription system was that the activation of transcription of nifHp depends on the presence of an additional protein capable of bending DNA, the integration host factor (IHF). (retzepti.ru)
  • human
  • Protein Ki-67 in human MCF-7 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thomas Cremer (born July 7, 1945 in Miesbach, Germany ), is a German professor of human genetics and anthropology with a main research focus on molecular cytogenetics and 3D/4D analyses of nuclear structure studied by fluorescence microscopy including super-resolution microscopy and live cell imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • The survivin protein is expressed highly in most human tumours and fetal tissue, but is completely absent in terminally differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • reversibly
  • In 2015 researchers announced a one-step process for using natural silk to create 4.7% nitrogen-doped carbon-based nanosheets that reversibly 1865 mA h/g over 10,000 cycles with only a 9% capacity loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrochemical
  • Recently, significant breakthroughs in electrochemical performance (e.g., rate capability and cycling stability) have been achieved by utilizing advanced nanotechnologies. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • They then performed electrochemical measurements using Swagelok-type cells, taking voltammetry measurements over numerous cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this context, it can help define the spatial-temporal patterns of gene expression within cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA probes can be designed for any gene or any sequence within a gene for visualization of mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA in tissues and cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 (NEDD-9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEDD9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cloned the gene encoding a protein hyperphosphorylated following ligation of β1-integrins in T cells and hypothesized to play a role in the process of T cell costimulation, designating this gene Cas-L (Crk-associated substrate-related protein, Lymphocyte type). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • In addition, in many tissues stem cells serve as a sort of internal repair system, like Neosporin, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells. (peircecollege.org)
  • form
  • They are involved in maintaining the structure of the cell and, together with microfilaments and intermediate filaments, they form the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • The designers claimed that they had induced the cell to form a Solid-electrolyte interphase, a first for an aqueous electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high salt concentration allows the interphase to form. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • T. Cremer has achieved major insight to compare nuclear phenotypes in a variety of species, ranging from primates, birds to the micro- and macronucleus of ciliates with the goal to classify universally valid, species and cell-type specific normal features of nuclear architecture and distinguish them from disease correlated features. (wikipedia.org)