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  • parasitic
  • Parasitic organisms have to exploit hosts to optimize growth and/or transmission while coping with the limited amount of host resources. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, while MCs are not essential for rejection of H. diminuta from mice, their absence slows the kinetics of expulsion allowing the development of greater worm biomass prior to successful rejection of the parasitic burden. (bioscirep.org)
  • Unlike the other parasitic groups, the monogeneans are external parasites infesting aquatic animals, and their larvae metamorphose into the adult form after attaching to a suitable host. (wikipedia.org)
  • infective
  • 12 ] summarized the proposed biological explanations as (i) a series of random infections with different densities of infectious stages, (ii) host individuals vary in susceptibility to infection and (iii) non-random distribution of infective stages in the habitat, conclusions further distilled by Poulin [ 13 ] into heterogeneity in exposure and heterogeneity in susceptibility. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • infection
  • At higher infection intensities, this relationship disappeared, possibly because of strong competition for host resources, and thus larval growth, and limited manipulative abilities of co-infecting larval acanthocephalans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several cases of H. diminuta infection have been reported, and these have mainly involved children. (tropicalgastro.com)
  • to a primary infection, the host develops a series of specific and nonspecific responses to the adult worms and the intestinal infection is thus considered to be self-limiting. (tropicalgastro.com)
  • The absence of surface location of the T. ovis antigens suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody- and complement-mediated attack until some postoncospheral development has occurred after infection of the intermediate host. (asm.org)
  • Assessment of gut-derived IL-25, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin revealed lower levels in uninfected MC-deficient mice compared with WT, suggesting a role for MCs in homeostatic control of these cytokines: differences in these gut cytokines between the mouse strains were not observed after infection with H. diminuta . (bioscirep.org)
  • Despite the association of these cells with infection with helminths, the precise role of each granulocyte population remains controversial, due largely to the complexity and variety of helminths examined, as well as the life cycle stage of the helminth assessed (larvae versus adults), and host genetics. (bioscirep.org)
  • hooks
  • This larva is passively taken up by an intermediate host, and is specialized for penetrating through the gut wall by means of six moving hooks and the secretions of penetration glands. (beds.ac.uk)
  • mammalian host
  • In the highly derived larval form of E. multilocularis , which proliferates asexually within the mammalian host, we found ubiquitous expression of posterior Wnt factors combined with localized expression of Wnt inhibitors that correlates with the asexual budding of scoleces. (beds.ac.uk)
  • mice
  • MC-deficient mice display a delay in the expulsion of H. diminuta that is accompanied by a less intense splenic Th2 response, as determined by in vitro release of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokines. (bioscirep.org)
  • Finally, mice infected with H. diminuta display less severe dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis, and this beneficial effect of the worm was unaltered in MC-deficient mice challenged with DNBS, as assessed by a macroscopic disease score. (bioscirep.org)
  • Adults
  • Adults occur throughout the year on host animals, with population numbers peaking in late summer or early autumn (Durden et al. (ufl.edu)
  • genetic
  • This variation may result from genetic differences in the host or parasite population, co-evolutionary processes or reflect differences in the environmental conditions experienced by populations. (core.ac.uk)
  • known
  • Such an arrangement is known as parasitism, and a parasite is an organism that obtains nourishment or other life support from a host, usually without killing it. (encyclopedia.com)