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  • Serum
  • Within the atopic eczema group, two subgroups differed markedly in their response to P. ovale antigen stimulation with a good correlation to the presence of specific IgE in serum and in vitro IL-4 and IL-10 production. (nih.gov)
  • IL-4/IL-13 pathway genetics strongly influence serum IgE levels and childhood asthma," The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology , vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 269-274, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Transgenic CD4 cells exhibited a 10- 100-fold increase in IL-4 production on mitogen stimulation in vitro and in vivo, and baseline levels of the Th2-controlled serum immunoglobulin isotypes, IgE and IgG1, were also selectively elevated in vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Y. M. Hussein, A. S. El-Shal, N. A. Rezk, S. M. Abdel Galil, and S. S. Alzahrani, "Influence of interleukin-4 gene polymorphisms and interleukin-4 serum level on susceptibility and severity of rheumatoid arthritis in Egyptian population," Cytokine , vol. 61, pp. 849-855, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • We took serum samples from a group of patients with a variety of clinical and radiological stages of pulmonary tuberculosis in order to characterize tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) response. (hindawi.com)
  • pathway
  • The capacity of various inhibitors to reverse TCR-mediated inhibition of IL-4 signaling suggested that activation of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and of the calcineurin pathway contribute to desensitizing IL-4R. (rupress.org)
  • Mechanically induced release of the chondroprotective cytokine IL-4 from HAC with subsequent autocrine/paracrine activity is likely to be an important regulatory pathway in the maintenance of articular cartilage structure and function. (rupress.org)
  • mediates
  • Here we show that interleukin-4 also induces the expression of PPAR-gamma and provide evidence that the coordinate induction of PPAR-gamma and 12/15-lipoxygenase mediates interleukin-4-dependent transcription of the CD36 gene in macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion In rat AIA, IL-4 reduces synovial tissue vascularization via angiostatic effects, mediates inhibition of angiogenesis via an association with altered pro- and antiangiogenic cytokines, and may inhibit VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and exert its angiostatic role in part via ΑvΒ3 integrin. (umich.edu)
  • Proteins
  • Two major IL-4-signaling pathways are mediated by the PTB domain proteins and Stat6, respectively ( 15 )( 16 ). (rupress.org)
  • Examination of the primary amino acid sequence of this protein indicates that it is a member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) family of DNA binding proteins, hereby designated IL-4 Stat. Study of the inhibitory activities of phosphotyrosine-containing peptides derived from the intracellular domain of the IL-4 receptor provided evidence for direct coupling of receptor and transcription factor during the IL-4 Stat activation cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • The autocrine and paracrine effects of IL-4 render both MCCs and CSCs refractory to anticancer drugs in part due to an increase of antiapoptotic proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the population of CSCs, apart from establishing prosurvival signals, IL-4 could lead to the expression of ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps, considered major components of multidrug resistance, such as P-glycoprotein, and of proteins involved in the metastatic process such as CD44 ( A ). Consequently, CSCs would remain viable after therapy, and consequently, be responsible for the minimum residual disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Soluble
  • We further evaluated whether the levels of TNF-α, IL-4 and soluble IL-2R are related with each other, and also evaluated the levels of TNF-α, IL-4 and sIL-2R after anti-tuberculosis therapy and relation with radiologic scores. (hindawi.com)
  • transgenic mice
  • To assess the effect of IL-4 production on typical RSV infection, transgenic mice which either overexpress or fail to express IL-4 were challenged intranasally with RSV and their responses were compared to those of the parent strains. (asm.org)
  • production
  • Excessive IL-4 production by Th2 cells has been associated with elevated IgE production and allergy. (cellsciences.com)
  • In addition, IL-4 can inhibit the production of TNF, IL-1, and IL-6 by macrophages. (biovendor.com)
  • Interleukin-4-dependent production of PPAR-gamma ligands in macrophages by 12/15-lipoxygenase. (nih.gov)
  • Th2 helper T lymphocytes are responsible for production of IL-4 in the periphery [ 11 ] and microglia are reported as a IL-4 secreting cell in the cortex of the brain [ 12 ], whereas IL-4 producing cells in the LC of the brain have not been identified yet. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study the effect of P. ovale on IgE synthesis and cytokine production (IL-2, IFN gamma, IL-4, IL-10) was investigated in patients with atopic eczema, in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Protein
  • IL-4 may mediate its biological effects, at least in part, by activating a tyrosine-phosphorylated DNA binding protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is an immunomodulatory cytokine secreted by activated T lymphocytes, basophils, and mast cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lung lymphocytes harvested from IL-4-overexpressing mice post-RSV challenge showed diminished RSV-specific cytolytic activity compared with controls. (asm.org)
  • Inflammation
  • Results IL-4 induced a reduction in synovial tissue vessel density, which was paralleled by a decrease in inflammation. (umich.edu)
  • macrophages
  • In monocytes and macrophages, 13-HODE and 15-HETE can be generated from linoleic and arachidonic acids, respectively, by a 12/15-lipoxygenase that is upregulated by the TH2-derived cytokine interleukin-4. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, IL-4-induced polarization of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) has been linked to acetyl-CoA levels through the activity of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA-generating enzyme ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY). (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we studied how ACLY regulated IL-4-stimulated gene expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our findings suggest that ACLY may not be the major regulator of nucleocytoplasmic acetyl-CoA and IL-4-induced polarization in human macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • gamma
  • Here we present the crystal structures of the complete set of type I (IL-4R alpha/gamma(c)/IL-4) and type II (IL-4R alpha/IL-13R alpha1/IL-4, IL-4R alpha/IL-13R alpha1/IL-13) ternary signaling complexes. (nih.gov)
  • response
  • 1 IL-4 has multiple immune response modulation functions on a variety of cell types. (labcorp.com)
  • and to preliminarily assess the response rate of IL-4 in AIDS-KS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is known that, in the presence of TCR-mediated signals, IL-4 activates Stat6, leading to the development of a Th2 response ( 22 )( 23 )( 24 )( 25 ), whereas IL-12 activates Stat4 and causes development of a Th1 response ( 29 )( 30 )( 31 ). (rupress.org)
  • Here, it was demonstrated that IL-4 was produced by noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) of the brain and release of IL-4 was reduced in response to IMO. (hindawi.com)
  • Chondrocytes from IL-4 knockout mice fail to show a membrane hyperpolarization response to cyclical mechanical stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • Although interleukin-4 (IL-4) expression has been implicated in vaccine-enhanced respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease, its role in mediating the immune response to primary RSV infection remains unclear. (asm.org)
  • synthesis
  • Pityrosporum ovale extracts increase interleukin-4, interleukin-10 and IgE synthesis in patients with atopic eczema. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, incubation of PBMC from RAST(+) patients with atopic eczema led to an elevated synthesis of the TH2 related cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. (nih.gov)
  • Type
  • The two type II complexes utilize an unusual top-mounted Ig-like domain on IL-13R alpha1 for a novel mode of cytokine engagement that contributes to a reversal in the IL-4 versus IL-13 ternary complex assembly sequences, which are mediated through substantially different recognition chemistries. (nih.gov)
  • A ) The Type I complex between IL-4Rα (blue), IL-4 (red) and γ c (gold). (nih.gov)
  • B ) The Type II IL-4 complex between IL-4Rα (blue), IL-4 (red) and IL-13Rα1 (green). (nih.gov)
  • Data are also summarized in ( A ) Type I complex: Reaction diagram for the interaction of IL-4Rα and IL-4 followed by recruitment of the second receptor, γ c . (nih.gov)
  • molecules
  • The differential sensitivity of MCCs versus CSCs could be attributed to the IL-4 target molecules that probably differ in the two cellular groups. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thirdly, macrophage activities induced or enhanced by IFN-γ, such as expression of certain cytokines, surface molecules and enzymes, are antagonized by IL-4. (ovid.com)
  • isotypes
  • Another dominant function of IL-4 is the regulation of immunoglobulin class switching to the IgG1 and IgE isotypes. (cellsciences.com)
  • gene expression
  • These functions of IL-4 are achieved through IL-4R-mediated signal transduction followed by specific gene expression ( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • Although multiple ACLY inhibitors attenuated IL-4-induced target gene expression, this effect could not be recapitulated by silencing ACLY expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • specific
  • These data imply that constitutive IL-4 expression delays or suppresses the development of a virus-specific cytotoxic lymphocyte population important in clearing primary RSV infection. (asm.org)
  • cell
  • This extended STAT6 activation may be critical in the IL-2/IL-4 induced synergy in T cell growth. (jimmunol.org)
  • Currently, we are investigating the crosstalk between these pathways and their functional roles in IL-2 and IL-4-stimulated T cell responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • regulation
  • Together, these functions of IL-4 and IFN-γ place the two cytokines at cardinal positions in the regulation of immune reactions. (ovid.com)