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  • genes
  • When introduced into the genome of A. thaliana by Agrobacterium -mediated transformation, double-stranded RNA-expressing constructs corresponding to four genes, AGAMOUS ( AG ), CLAVATA3 , APETALA1 , and PERIANTHIA , caused specific and heritable genetic interference. (pnas.org)
  • Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated interference with expression of specific genes has been observed in a number of organisms including Caenorhabditis elegans ( 13 - 17 ), plants ( 18 , 19 ), Drosophila ( 20 , 21 ), Trypanosoma brucei ( 22 ), and a planarian ( 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • To investigate the potential of dsRNA interference with gene activity in A. thaliana , we introduced dsRNA-expressing constructs of selected genes with previously defined functions into plants. (pnas.org)
  • The phenotypes produced by dsRNAs corresponding to these genes are similar to those of their previously identified reduction-of-function or loss-of-function mutants ( 31 - 36 ). (pnas.org)
  • Indeed, we found that knocking out these genes caused a number of chloroplast phenotypes, including a reduction in the proportion of cellular volume devoted to chloroplasts to 50% of wild type. (pnas.org)
  • This is supported by indirect evidence showing that multi-copy genes show loss-of-function phenotypes less often than single-copy genes and by direct tests of phenotype masking using select gene sets. (nih.gov)
  • Remarkably, in contrast to expectations, we find that phenotype masking makes only a minor contribution to the low knockdown phenotype rate for duplicate genes. (nih.gov)
  • Instead, we find that non-essential genes are highly over-represented among duplicates, leading to a low observed loss-of-function phenotype rate. (nih.gov)
  • We further find that duplicate pairs derived from essential and non-essential genes have contrasting evolutionary dynamics: whereas non-essential genes are both more often successfully duplicated (fixed) and lost, essential genes are less often duplicated but upon successful duplication are maintained over longer periods. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, on the basis of their Pvl phenotypes, we show that the previously identified genes lin-26, mom-3 / mig-14, egl-18 , and sem-4 also function during vulval development. (genetics.org)
  • a genetic analysis method in which the phenotype of a mutant defective in two genes of interest is compared to the phenotype of single mutants in each gene. (biologists.org)
  • dsRNA
  • In addition to high specificity and heritability, a phenotypic series (weak, intermediate, and strong) was obtained from dsRNA interference. (pnas.org)
  • Transfection of synthetic α-tubulin 5′ UTR dsRNA, but not of either strand individually, caused the same phenotype. (pnas.org)
  • We serendipitously discovered this pathway because trypanosomes expressing dsRNA representing a portion of α-tubulin mRNA acquired an abnormal phenotype, namely, they became multinucleated and lost their typical slender morphology. (pnas.org)
  • gene
  • Variations in gut microbiota and fecal metabolic phenotype associated with Fenbendazole and Ivermectin Tablets by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and LC/MS-based metabolomics in Amur tiger. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • When a duplicate gene has no apparent loss-of-function phenotype, it is commonly considered that the phenotype has been masked as a result of functional redundancy with the remaining paralog. (nih.gov)
  • Thus
  • Thus, effects of angiotensin II are augmented by interference with endothelial PPAR-γ through sex-independent mechanisms, involving oxidant-inflammatory signaling and ROCK2 (Rho kinase). (ahajournals.org)
  • RNA interference rescue using mutated CXCR1 plasmids reversed the silencing effect of PLK2, thus demonstrating the specificity of phenotypic alteration by CXCR1 shRNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • results
  • Our results suggest that RGS4 deficit induces dysregulation and dysfunction of system x c - , which further results in functional deficits of the glutamatergic system and subsequently to schizophrenia-related behavioral phenotypes. (thno.org)
  • classical
  • The classical phenotype is associated with complete LAMA2 deficiency and pathological symptoms of muscle degeneration, fibrosis, and white matter abnormalities within the CNS ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • found
  • In contrast to FRIENDLY , these three homologs of FRIENDLY are found only in photosynthetic organisms. (pnas.org)