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  • Metabolites
  • Together with the overlapping reactions of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and of the Calvin cycle, they provide the precursor metabolites required for the synthesis of RNA, DNA, lipids, energy and redox coenzymes and amino acids-key molecules required for life. (embopress.org)
  • NADPH
  • Note: In vertebrates, about half of the NADPH necessary for the reductive steps of fatty acid synthesis derives from the pentose phosphate pathway, and the rest from the malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) reaction. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Synthesis
  • sedoheptulose 7-phosphate which, in Gram-negative bacteria, is used for the synthesis of heptose units in the lipopolysaccharide layer of the outer membrane. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for improving L: -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L: -DOPA) synthesis from glucose Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 38, 1845-1852. (unam.mx)
  • genes
  • These results highlight a more definitive response to water deficit by a 'dry' climate eucalypt, particularly in stem tissue, identifying key pathways and associated genes that are responsible for the differences between 'wet' and 'dry' climate eucalypts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Constitutive expression of selected genes from the pentose phosphate and aromatic pathways increases the shikimic acid yield in high-glucose batch cultures of an Escherichia coli strain lacking PTS and pykF Microbial Cell Factories, 12, 86. (unam.mx)
  • Interestingly, there are 4 zebrafish-specific genes ( si:ch211-167b20.8, CABZ01043017.1, socs9 and eif4e1c) and 1 human-specific gene ( CALML6 ) that may alter glucose utilization in their corresponding species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • reactions
  • and (c) a storage pool of diverse phosphorylated glycolyl units that may be used directly or as signals for biosynthetic and energy-yielding reactions by other pathways. (schoolbag.info)
  • phosphogluconate pathway
  • The first evidence of the existence of the phosphogluconate pathway was obtained in the 1930s by the studies of Otto Warburg , Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1931, who discovered NADP during studies on the oxidation of glucose 6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate . (tuscany-diet.net)
  • organisms
  • Existing studies have shown that the control and regulation of glucose homeostasis vary greatly between different organisms, leading to corresponding fluctuations in blood glucose levels across different classes of vertebrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • xylose
  • Laboratory evolution for forced glucose-xylose co-consumption enables identification of mutations. (deepdyve.com)
  • Papapetridis, Ioannis;Verhoeven, Maarten D;Wiersma, Sanne J;Goudriaan, Maaike;van Maris, Antonius J A;Pronk, Jack T 2018-05-15 00:00:00 Abstract Simultaneous fermentation of glucose and xylose can contribute to improved productivity and robustness of yeast-based processes for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. (deepdyve.com)
  • Whole-genome sequencing of evolved strains identified mutations in HXK2, RSP5 and GAL83, whose introduction into a non-evolved xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain improved co-consumption of xylose and glucose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Combined deletion of HXK2 and introduction of a GAL83G673T allele yielded a strain with a 2.5-fold higher xylose and glucose co-consumption ratio than its xylose-fermenting parental strain. (deepdyve.com)
  • These two modifications decreased the time required for full sugar conversion in anaerobic bioreactor batch cultures, grown on 20 g L−1 glucose and 10 g L−1 xylose, by over 24 h. (deepdyve.com)
  • Current strain engineering strategies for enabling pentose fermentation by S. cerevisiae typically yield strains that, in anaerobic batch cultures grown on sugar mixtures, preferentially ferment glucose, while xylose and/or arabinose are predominantly converted in a second, slower fermentation phase (Jansen et al.2017). (deepdyve.com)
  • Xylose is a sugar of the pentose class that occurs widely in plants, especially as a component of hemicelluloses. (factbites.com)
  • yeast
  • biofuels, yeast, industrial biotechnology, redox engineering, fermentation, pentoses INTRODUCTION Industrial biotechnology can contribute to reconciliating global demands for liquid transport fuels with the almost universally accepted need to limit anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Fulton et al.2015). (deepdyve.com)
  • fermentation
  • Bioethanol, the biofuel with the largest annual global production volume, is still predominantly produced by fermentation of sucrose or glucose, derived from sugar cane or corn starch, respectively (Gombert and van Maris 2015). (deepdyve.com)
  • The fermentation pathways and butyrate-producing mechanisms of F. prausnitzii are well described ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • blood glucose
  • The Association of British Clinical Diabetologists states that diagnosis of ketoacidosis should only be confirmed with a concomitant blood glucose over 11.1 mmol/l or known diabetes, and significant acidosis (arterial pH below 7.3 or venous bicarbonate below 15 mmol/l). (blogspot.com)
  • Thus the non-lactation case in ref qualifies, despite normal HbA1c, but the lactation ketoacidosis cases do not because blood glucose in these cases is at normal or lower than normal levels. (blogspot.com)