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  • induce
  • Nevertheless, it has been suggested that cells released from these biofilms may induce severe acute infections with bacteraemia as one of its major associated clinical manifestations. (frontiersin.org)
  • cells
  • However, how biofilm-released cells interact with the host remains unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gene expression analysis of mouse splenocytes suggested that biofilm-released cells might be particularly effective at activating inflammatory and antigen presenting cells and inducing cellular apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, these results not only provide insights into the understanding of the role of biofilm-released cells in S. epidermidis biofilm-related infections and pathogenesis, but may also help explain the relapsing character of these infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • The later refers to the release of bacterial cells from the biofilm to the surrounding environment, and is the least understood stage of the biofilm lifecycle ( Boles and Horswill, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • form biofilms
  • Consistent with our observation that the ability of S. mutans to form biofilms was severely impaired by oxygen exposure, transcription of the gtfB gene, which encodes one of the primary enzymes involved in the production of water-insoluble, adhesive glucan exopolysaccharides, was down-regulated in cells growing aerobically. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The abilities of this organism to form biofilms, to generate acid, and to tolerate environmental stresses are critical to its virulence ( 10 , 11 , 24 , 25 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have recently demonstrated that the ability of S. mutans to form biofilms, an essential virulence attribute of this organism, was dramatically reduced when cells were cultivated in the presence of oxygen ( 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mutants producing only alginate, i.e., mutants deficient in both Psl and Pel production, lost their ability to form biofilms. (asm.org)
  • antimicrobial
  • The protection given by biofilms produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae strains towards antimicrobial peptides of the innate immune system was investigated. (mdpi.com)
  • Three clinical strains producing exopolysaccharides with different chemistry were selected and the interaction of purified biofilm polysaccharides with two bovine cathelicidins was studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy and microbiological assays to establish their influence on the peptide's antimicrobial activity. (mdpi.com)
  • The extent of interaction was then related to the protection towards antimicrobial peptides, conferred by the addition of the different exopolysaccharides, in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays against a reference Escherichia coli strain. (mdpi.com)
  • Current concern that the increased use of such biocides in consumer products might contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance has led us to examine the effects of a QAC-containing domestic cleaning fluid on the population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility of domestic sink drain biofilm communities. (asm.org)
  • presence of biofilm
  • Transport studies suggest that, for both types of nanoparticles tested, the particle attachment efficiency to the collector surface generally increases (up to 6 fold in NaCl and 26 fold in CaCl 2 ) in the presence of biofilm. (rsc.org)
  • strains
  • In this study, 17 epiphytic bacterial strains, isolated from the surface of the marine alga Ulva australis, were screened for synergistic interactions within biofilms when present together in different combinations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The new model takes into account that the microbial challenge derives from a biofilm community and not from planktonically cultured bacterial strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms formed in flow chambers showed that mutants deficient in alginate biosynthesis developed biofilms with a decreased proportion of viable cells than alginate-producing strains, indicating a role of alginate in viability of cells in biofilms. (asm.org)
  • surfaces
  • The term microbially influenced corrosion, or biocorrosion, refers to the accelerated deterioration of metals owing to the presence of biofilms on their surfaces. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For example, biofilms may coat aquifer grain surfaces and thus alter the transport of these reactive nanoparticles. (rsc.org)
  • Opportunistic Gram-negative rods' capability of creating biofilm structures on polivynyl chloride and styrene-acronitrile copolymer surfaces. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, almost all submerged surfaces are covered by photoautotrophic biofilms that form the basis of benthic food-webs. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • In addition, the rosR mutants exhibit significant decrease in motility and form a biofilm on plastic surfaces, which differs significantly in depth, architecture, and bacterial viability from that of the wild type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • synergistic
  • Both of these systems have identified synergistic and mutualistic interactions among microorganisms resulting in unique mechanisms of attachment and metabolic interdependence. (asmscience.org)
  • microorganisms
  • Most ecosystems are populated by a large number of diversified microorganisms, which interact with one another and form complex networks ranging from intraspecific to interspecific interactions and from simple short-term interactions to intricate long-term ones. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biofilms form in each of the two models that can be used to identify mechanisms of interspecies and intergeneric cooperation among microorganisms applicable to polymicrobial diseases. (asmscience.org)
  • A general setup to grow microorganisms in continuous culture (A) and a basic fermentor vessel (B) containing substratum ports and support rods for biofilm accumulation. (asmscience.org)
  • anaerobic
  • Duan J, Wu S, Zhang X, Huang G, Du M, Hou B (2008) Corrosion of carbon steel influenced by anaerobic biofilm in natural seawater. (springer.com)
  • Biofilms were grown on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) discs at 37 °C in anaerobic conditions for 64.5 h. (beds.ac.uk)
  • antibiotic
  • Alginate has been shown to contribute to decreased susceptibility of biofilms to antibiotic treatment and human antibacterial defense mechanisms ( 19 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • corrosion
  • Our team, composed by researchers from department of civil and environmental engineering, department of bioengineering, and department of electrical and computer engineering in University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, have been working on elucidating the interactions between biofilms and water treatment reagents (e.g., disinfectants and scale/corrosion inhibitors) and their implications on safe drinking water supply and public health protection. (nature.com)
  • In the paper published in npj Biofilms and Microbiomes ( DOI : 10.1038/s41522-018-0058-1 ), we investigated the influence of a scale/corrosion inhibitor on biofilm properties. (nature.com)
  • Because the results of this study revealed that common practice in the US of adding polyphosphate for scale/corrosion control could effectively influence biofilm physicochemical properties, future study should focus on strategy development to optimize and balance the system maintenance and microbial contamination. (nature.com)
  • exopolysaccharide
  • Critical to the development of a biofilm is the elaboration of exopolysaccharide that contributes to substrate and intercellular adhesion. (springer.com)
  • In some of the dual and quadruple strain biofilms new exopolysaccharide monomers were detected which were not present in the pure strain samples. (diva-portal.org)
  • grown
  • Biofilms were grown on sand using environmental groundwater samples as inoculum in nitrate reducing conditions. (duhnnae.com)
  • infection
  • There is no human-to-human transmission and the main source of infection is L. pneumophila biofilms established in air conditioners, water fountains, and hospital equipments. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study advances our understanding of the innate immune response to biofilm-derived L. pneumophila and closely reproduces the natural mode of infection in human. (frontiersin.org)
  • wound infection, especially biofilm infection, is one of these delaying factors. (cardiffmet.ac.uk)
  • Bacterial biofilms are the main causes of infection in many cases of sever non healing wound infections. (cardiffmet.ac.uk)
  • carbon
  • Bellinger B, Underwood GJC, Ziegler S, Gretz MR (2009) Significance of diatom-derived polymers in carbon flow dynamics within estuarine biofilms determined through isotopic enrichment. (springer.com)
  • The fraction of beads that attached to biofilm during a 24 h period ranged from 0.001 to 0.01 and was proportional to biofilm cell carbon and to the standard deviation of biofilm thickness. (montana.edu)
  • Staphylococcus
  • Thomas, V. L., Sanford, B. A., Moreno, R., and Ramsay, M. A. (1997) Enzymelinked lectinsorbent assay measures N-acetyl-D-glucosamine in matrix of biofilm produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis . (springer.com)
  • phosphorus
  • Nutrient-releasing substrates placed beneath wood veneers indicated colimitation by nitrogen and phosphorus on biofilms in the reference stream. (usda.gov)
  • Denitrification activity within the biofilms generally increased with the amount of biofilm while phosphorus removal depended on bacterial growth rate. (diva-portal.org)
  • enzymes
  • Challenging the host derived HGEC with the biofilm invoked apoptosis in the epithelial cells, triggered release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and in parallel induced rapid degradation of the cytokines by biofilm-generated enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • inorganic
  • We examined the effect of decomposing leaf litter and dissolved inorganic nutrients on the heterotrophic biofilm of submerged wood in streams with and without leaves. (usda.gov)
  • inoculation
  • Many of the microbeads that attached to biofilm shortly after bacterial inoculation (thickness of 2 μm) remained near the substratum as cells grew past and covered them. (montana.edu)
  • The majority of cells in both sequentially and coaggregateinoculated biofilms were S. gordonii , regardless of the inoculation order. (asmscience.org)