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  • islets
  • Addition of pyruvate to rat islets perifused in the presence of 5 mM-glucose elicited an immediate pronounced biphasic stimulation of insulin secretion. (biochemj.org)
  • A marked stimulation of insulin secretion and 45Ca2+ efflux rate was observed in response to 3-fluoropyruvate and 3-bromopyruvate, compounds which inhibited oxidative metabolism of [14C]glucose and [14C]pyruvate in islets. (biochemj.org)
  • The islet specificity of these diabetic rosettes was confirmed because, compared with controls, lymphocytes from recent-onset type I diabetic subjects also displayed a greater intensity of adherence to normal mouse islets but not to unrelated K562 and TS cell lines. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Several earlier studies, including our own, suggested critical involvement of small G-proteins, such as Rac1, Cdc42, and ARF6, in GSIS from normal rat islets, human islets, and clonal β-cell preparations ( 3 - 5 , 19 - 31 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin is produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets in most vertebrates and by the Brockmann body in some teleost fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Douglas Melton, a Harvard University stem cell scientist, and colleagues reported the in vitro feat on Thursday (October 9) in Cell . (the-scientist.com)
  • Glycation of insulin in vitro was substantially less extensive than in BRIN-BD11 cells, although glucose-6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate were 1.4- to 2.0-fold more reactive than glucose per se. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Researchers
  • Researchers are already trying to replicate the work and are seeking ways to scale the process using robotics, according to Susan Solomon, chief executive of the New York Stem Cell Foundation, who also spoke to the Washington Post . (the-scientist.com)
  • First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. (biologists.org)
  • In 2001 when President George W. Bush cut federal funding of embryonic stem cell research, Melton used private donations to create 17 published stem cell lines and distributed them without charge to researchers around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Harvard University
  • Additionally, Melton serves as the co-director of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and was the first co-chair (with David Scadden) of the Harvard University Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Cellular blebs shed by tumor cells can process short stretches of RNA that go on to induce tumor formation in neighboring cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • The diagnosis of an insulinoma is usually made biochemically with low blood glucose, elevated insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide levels, and confirmed by localizing the tumor with medical imaging or angiography. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 72-hour fast, usually supervised in a hospital setting, can be done to see if insulin levels fail to suppress, which is a strong indicator of the presence of an insulin-secreting tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • This patent discloses a system "[f]or embryonic stem cell derived islet cells to become a commercially viable proposition, there is a need to develop new procedures that provide for populations of islet cells of high purity," and discloses "a system for efficient production of primate cells that have differentiated from pluripotent cells into cells of the islet cell lineage. (blogspot.com)
  • This led to the finding that the nervous system in vertebrates is formed as a default when early embryonic cells do not receive inductive signals to become mesoderm or endoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • He said the stem cell-derived beta cells could be ready for human research in three to five years. (vetscite.org)
  • Diabetic rats were fed daily with human lactobacilli engineered to secrete GLP-1(1-37). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • thereby obtaining a population comprising human insulin secreting cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Documenting the epigenetic landscape of human innate immune cells reveals pathways essential for training macrophages. (the-scientist.com)
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • Insulin from animal sources differs somewhat in effectiveness (in carbohydrate metabolism effects) from human insulin because of these variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several regulatory sequences in the promoter region of the human insulin gene bind to transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • it also promotes the malignant behavior of cultured human cancer cells as well as the growth of certain cancers in animal models (see 12-HETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • And beta cells do a much better job controlling blood sugar than diabetic patients can. (vetscite.org)
  • 001) compared with lymphocytes from 27 healthy subjects forming background rosettes, whereas the number of RIN cytoadherent lymphocytes was unimpaired in 12 type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The high percentage (66%) of la + cells found in diabetic rosettes suggests that at least some of the cytoadherent T-lymphocytes from recent-onset type I diabetic subjects are activated. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 005). These diabetic rosettes thus seem to represent a new marker of anti-β-cell cellular immunity in recent-onset type I diabetic subjects, more likely involving activated T-lymphocytes than NK cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In diabetic RIP-REST mice, high levels of REST were associated with postnatal beta cell apoptosis, which resulted in gradual beta cell loss and sustained hyperglycemia in adults. (epfl.ch)
  • somatostatin
  • Medications such as diazoxide and somatostatin can be used to block the release of insulin for patients who are not surgical candidates or who otherwise have inoperable tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, adenoviral REST transduction in INS-1E cells led to increased cell death under control conditions, and sensitized cells to death induced by cytokines. (epfl.ch)
  • physiological
  • Other cases are due to a physiological inability to process insulin, although in fact both factors often combine. (europa.eu)
  • Sulfatide also plays a role in several physiological processes and systems, including the nervous system, the immune system, insulin secretion, blood clotting, viral infection, and bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)