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  • 2000
  • Proteins containing RING finger domains frequently act as ubiquitin E3 ligases ( Joazeiro and Weissman, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • homology
  • IRS proteins consist of two highly conserved domains in the N-terminal region, a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, followed by a long, non-conserved C-terminal domain. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • IRS proteins contain a conserved pleckstrin homology (PH) domain at their NH 2 terminus followed by a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. (physiology.org)
  • Tyr-phosphorylated IRS proteins, the major insulin receptor substrates, function as signaling scaffolds that propagate insulin action through binding of Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing proteins. (physiology.org)
  • At least four members (IRS 1-4) have been identified that differ with regard to tissue distribution, subcellular localization, developmental expression, binding to the insulin receptor, and interaction with Src homology 2 (SH2) domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They are all structurally characterised by N-terminal pleckstrin-homology (PH) and phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains, which are required for coupling to the activated insulin/IGF receptors, and a C-terminal region with multiple sites for tyrosine phosphorylation by the receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human PARK2 protein consists of four domains: an N-terminal ubiquitin-homology domain and two RING finger domains flanking a cysteine-rich in between RING fingers (IBR) domain ( Fig. 1A ) ( Morett and Bork, 1999 ). (biologists.org)
  • structurally
  • PTPs constitute a large, structurally diverse family of receptor-like and cytoplasmic enzymes expressed in all eukaryotes. (mdpi.com)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Pathological examination of the brains of individuals with idiopathic PD show loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain with the formation of cytoplasmic protein inclusions called Lewy bodies (LBs). The loss of these DA neurons might underlie the clinical symptoms of PD. (biologists.org)
  • obese
  • It appears that across all subject phenotypes (eg, lean and obese, insulin sensitive and insulin resistant), a consistent significant and beneficial effect of chromium may not be observed. (springer.com)
  • cells
  • These receptors are also expressed on tumor cells and their expression correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To study insulin signaling in IGT, we used human skeletal muscle cells in primary culture from patients with IGT and control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin receptor substrate-1 prevents autophagy-dependent cell death caused by oxidative stress in mouse NIH/3T3 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Evidence for GO induced autophagy includes increased levels of isoform B-II microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), aggregation of green fluorescence protein-tagged LC3, and increased numbers of autophagic vacuoles in cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Development of dynamic proteomics, a system for monitoring the position and amounts of endogenous proteins in individual living human cells. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We found that IRS-1 is an acetylated protein, of which the acetylation is increased by treatment of cells with Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of HDAC activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PMID
  • They are important regulatory factors in insulin signaling pathways [ PMID: 12169433 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • glucose uptake
  • Myotubes in culture from patients with IGT had insulin-induced glucose uptake that was roughly 30-50% less than that from control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, myotubes from patients with IGT have impaired insulin-induced glucose uptake. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A substantial body of literature now points to E4 as a driver of multiple impairments seen in AD, including blunted brain insulin signaling, mismanagement of brain cholesterol and fatty acids, reductions in blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and decreased cerebral glucose uptake. (frontiersin.org)