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  • Inhibition
  • Granner D, Andreone T, Sasaki K, Beale E (1983) Inhibition of transcription of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene by insulin. (springer.com)
  • The enzymatic activity of SGK1 is disrupted upon inhibition of PI3 kinase ( 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Lang F, Voelkl J, 2013 Therapeutic potential of serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase inhibition. (springer.com)
  • It also caused a dose dependent inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis starting at doses of 0.5 microM and 5microM, respectively. (ufl.edu)
  • Subsequent cell proliferation assays demonstrated that treatment with ginsenoside Rg5 resulted in the dose‑dependent inhibition of proliferation, while a significant increase in apoptotic rate and increased activities of caspase‑3, ‑8 and ‑9 were observed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • metabolic
  • 2,3 The metabolic actions of insulin maintain glucose homeostasis by promoting glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and suppressing glucose production in the liver. (ahajournals.org)
  • IRS-1 and IRS-2 are important in transmitting the metabolic actions of insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The role of AMPK in the other principal metabolic and insulin-sensitive tissue, adipose, remains poorly characterized in comparison, yet increasing evidence supports an important role for AMPK in adipose tissue function. (clinsci.org)
  • Therefore, this review aimed to identify the role of leucine in protein synthesis modulation and to discuss the metabolic aspects related to this aminoacid. (scielo.br)
  • and (3) introduce collaborative nutritional and metabolic strategies to conserve lean body mass and improve surgical outcome. (asahq.org)
  • Moreover, males exhibit a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome than women in early adult life, but this sex difference diminishes sharply in hypoestrogenic states (2, 3). (deepdyve.com)
  • In the guinea pig, the insulin-induced decrease in food intake is correlated with alterations in energy expenditure as manifested by increases in O2 consumption, CO2 production, and metabolic heat production (9). (deepdyve.com)
  • 1 , 2 In diabetes mellitus and insulin-resistant states, metabolic, structural, and functional changes in the heart and vasculature led to diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia, and ultimately heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • vivo
  • In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that high protein diets affect both protein synthesis and regulation of several cellular processes. (scielo.br)
  • We use the term "theranostic" fairly broadly to include any construct that can be imaged noninvasively in vivo and can modulate the biological activity of a kinase/protease. (thno.org)
  • I studied the effect of this compound on FAK-IGF-1R protein interactions, when administered alone or in combination with 5-FU or gemcitabine chemotherapy on cell signaling, viability and apoptosis in human melanoma (A375, C8161, SK-Mel28), esophageal (KYSE 70, 140) and pancreatic (Miapaca-2, Panc-1) cancer cells and on in vivo tumor growth in xenograft mouse models. (ufl.edu)
  • Remarkably, this process was found to bias insulin signalling towards the Erk branch in vitro and in vivo. (ubc.ca)
  • Moreover, there is also some doubt as to whether or not the effects of insulin recorded in vivo can be attributed to a direct action of the hormone at its site of application, since pronounced insulin-induced vasodilatation has been reported to require systemic, and not local, hyperinsulinemia ( 12 ) and may be dependent on the local uptake of d -glucose ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Summarizing the available data, it appears that a role for NO in mediating insulin-induced changes in blood flow can only be demonstrated in vivo by comparing responses in the absence and presence of a NOS inhibitor. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we determined the expression of and in vivo insulin action on AS160 in human skeletal muscle. (highwire.org)
  • cell proliferation
  • Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. (cellsignal.com)
  • Phosphoinositides are membrane-bound signalling molecules that regulate cell proliferation and survival, cytoskeletal reorganization and vesicular trafficking by recruiting effector proteins to cellular membranes. (biochemj.org)
  • Gene-targeted deletion of 5-ptases in mice has revealed that these enzymes regulate haemopoietic cell proliferation, synaptic vesicle recycling, insulin signalling, endocytosis, vesicular trafficking and actin polymerization. (biochemj.org)
  • Importantly, activation of PKC-ζ is required for growth factor-stimulated β-cell proliferation in vitro ( 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Indeed, constitutively active PKC-ζ (CA-PKC-ζ) increases β-cell proliferation in insulinoma and primary mouse and human islet cells in vitro ( 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Breast cancer is characterized by excessive cell proliferation, dysregulation of cellular differentiation and insufficient apoptosis [ 3 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • glucocorticoid-inducible kinase
  • Lang F, Bohmer C, Palmada M, et al, 2006 Pathophysiological significance of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase isoforms. (springer.com)
  • Salker MS, Christian M, Steel JH, et al, 2011 Deregulation of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1 in the endometrium causes reproductive failure. (springer.com)
  • Lang F, Artunc F, Vallon V, 2009 The physiological impact of the serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1. (springer.com)
  • Cho YM, Pu HF, Huang WJ, et al, 2011 Role of serum-and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-1 in regulating torsion-induced apoptosis in rats. (springer.com)
  • binds
  • showed that insulin binds upon various segments of rabbit nephron, among which it binds strongest upon thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and distal convoluted tubule [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Durham SK, Suwanichkul A, Scheimann AO, Yee D, Jackson JG, Barr FG Powell DR (1999) FKHR binds the insulin response element in the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 promoter. (springer.com)
  • The encoded protein is a nuclear phosphoprotein that binds and inhibits transactivation by tumor protein p53, as part of an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Akt (protein kinase B) containing PH domain gets activated, binds to PIP3 and localizes to the site of receptor activation. (scribd.com)
  • obesity
  • Impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake is a uniformly observed characteristic of the heart in these states, although changes in upstream kinase signaling are variable and dependent on the severity and duration of the associated obesity or diabetes mellitus. (ahajournals.org)
  • activity
  • Insulin-stimulated GS activity was reduced 30% in diabetic subjects. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin also stimulated IRS-2-associated PI 3-kinase activity 2.2-fold in lean subjects, but only 1.4-fold in diabetic subjects. (nih.gov)
  • Acute studies suggest that hyperinsulinemia may cause sodium retention and increased sympathetic activity, which will be an important cause of hypertension [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Prednisolone decreased GTI to 3 and leveled SOD activity, but MDA and PCG remained higher than control ones by 52% and 42%, respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, in insulin-resistant rodent skeletal muscle, the decrease in total phosphotyrosine-associated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity closely parallels the reduction in IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Background: Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb) is an evolutionarily conserved member of the Ras family of small GTP-binding proteins originally found to be rapidly induced by synaptic activity in the hippocampus following seizure (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • The transcriptional activity of FoxOs is tightly controlled by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • AKT is a major kinase that potently inhibits the activity of FoxOs by phosphorylating the well-conserved sites in FoxOs: FoxO1-T24/S256/S319, FoxO3-T32/S253/S315, FoxO4-T32/S197/S262, and FoxO6-T26/S184 ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The effect requires the kinase catalytical activity since the inactive mutant K127N SGK1 failed to modulate GLUT1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The pleiotropic effects of leptin and insulin in POMC neurons are vital for both the short-term (excitability) and long-term (transcriptional) modulation of POMC neuronal activity and the control of food intake and energy homeostasis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Insulin depolarizes POMC neurons in both males and females via activation of canonical transient receptor potential 5 (TRPC5) channels and hyperpolarize NPY/AgRP neurons via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (9), activity that is congruent with the anorexigenic effects of insulin. (deepdyve.com)
  • The increase in POMC cell excitability induced by insulin translates into heightened transcriptional activity [i.e., an increase in Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus and specifically in POMC neurons following an intracerebroventricular injection into the third ventricle (ICV) of insulin] (9). (deepdyve.com)
  • We focus in particular on approaches that include the possibility of modulating the activity of these kinases and proteases in a theranostic approach. (thno.org)
  • Immunofluorescence staining (IF) and western blots confirmed insulin receptor and phosphotyrosine activity in cells. (scribd.com)
  • Since insulin can enhance platelet endothelial NOS activity, we determined whether insulin-induced vasodilatation can be attributed to a NO-dependent, platelet-mediated process. (rupress.org)