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  • Levemir
  • These companies produce pens for most of their insulins, including NovoLog/NovoRapid, Humalog, Levemir and Lantus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding weight gain compared to NPH insulin, the Levemir package insert states the following disclaimer: "LEVEMIR was associated with somewhat less weight gain than NPH (Table 4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether these observed differences represent true differences in the effects of LEVEMIR and NPH insulin is not known, since these trials were not blinded and the protocols (e.g., diet and exercise instructions and monitoring) were not specifically directed at exploring hypotheses related to weight effects of the treatments compared. (wikipedia.org)
  • On June 13, 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health advisory for Levemir insulin after learning that 129,000 stolen vials reappeared and were being sold in the U.S. market. (wikipedia.org)
  • aspart
  • According to JDRF, insulin aspart was approved for marketing in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration in June 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The components of insulin aspart are as follows: Metal ion - zinc (19.6 μg/mL) Buffer - disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (1.25 mg/mL) Preservatives - m-cresol (1.72 mg/mL) and phenol (1.50 mg/mL) Isotonicity agents - glycerin (16 mg/mL) and sodium chloride (0.58 mg/mL). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pH of insulin aspart is 7.2-7.6. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been debated whether or not insulin aspart (or NovoLog/NovoRapid) should be kept refrigerated at all times. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a lack of compelling evidence to conclude superiority of insulin aspart over human insulin with regard to efficacy leading some to good question the shifting of patients from human insulin to this modern insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • Novolog® has a more rapid onset, and a shorter duration of activity than normal human insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • NPH insulin is cloudy and has an onset of 1-4 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • NPH insulin has the advantage that it can be mixed with an insulin that has a faster onset to complement its longer lasting action, which is the primary reason NPH remains on the market today, because manufacturers sell a variety of premixed insulin formulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The insulin receptor (IR) is a transmembrane receptor that is activated by insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and belongs to the large class of tyrosine kinase receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemically, the insulin receptor is encoded by a single gene INSR, from which alternate splicing during transcription results in either IR-A or IR-B isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Downstream post-translational events of either isoform result in the formation of a proteolytically cleaved α and β subunit, which upon combination are ultimately capable of homo or hetero-dimerisation to produce the ≈320 kDa disulfide-linked transmembrane insulin receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changes facilitate the recruitment of specific adapter proteins such as the insulin receptor substrate proteins (IRS) in addition to SH2-B (Src Homology 2 - B ), APS and protein phosphatases, such as PTP1B, eventually promoting downstream processes involving blood glucose homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This modification did not alter the insulin receptor binding, but blocked the formation of insulin dimers and hexamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This modification does not alter receptor binding, but blocks the formation of insulin dimers and hexamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • protamine
  • Allergy to Insulin products is rare with a prevalence of about 2%, of which most reactions are not due to the insulin itself but to preservatives added to insulin such as zinc, protamine, and meta-cresol. (wikipedia.org)
  • NPH insulin is made by mixing regular insulin and protamine in exact proportions with zinc and phenol such that a neutral-pH is maintained and crystals form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protamine insulin was first created in 1936 and NPH insulin in 1946. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1936, Hagedorn and B. Norman Jensen discovered that the effects of injected insulin could be prolonged by the addition of protamine obtained from the "milt" or semen of river trout. (wikipedia.org)
  • University of Toronto, Canada later licensed protamine zinc insulin (PZI), to several manufacturers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1946, Nordisk was able to form crystals of protamine and insulin and marketed it in 1950 as NPH insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic 'human' insulin is also complexed with protamine to form NPH. (wikipedia.org)
  • NPH stands for neutral protamine Hagedorn, and the words refer to neutral pH (pH = 7), protamine (a protein), and Hans Christian Hagedorn (an insulin researcher). (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin is produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets in most vertebrates and by the Brockmann body in some teleost fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • This signal is believed to entrain pulsatile insulin release from the islets into a common pancreatic rhythm. (wikipedia.org)
  • pump
  • Another disadvantage of insulin pump use is a higher risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis if the pump malfunctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can happen if the pump battery is discharged, if the insulin is inactivated by heat exposure, if the insulin reservoir runs empty, the tubing becomes loose and insulin leaks rather than being injected, or if the cannula becomes bent or kinked in the body, preventing delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, pump users typically monitor their blood sugars more frequently to evaluate the effectiveness of insulin delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the insulin pump needs to be worn most of the time, pump users need strategies to participate in activities that may damage the pump, such as rough sports and activities in the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is usually used to deliver insulin through the use of an insulin pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • oscillations
  • It would therefore be advantageous to administer insulin to diabetic patients in a manner mimicking the natural oscillations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin oscillations--clinically important rhythm. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsweek/Glycemic_index_and_glycemic_load_for_100_foods.htm Glycemic index Glycemic load Insulin oscillations Holt, Susanne H.A. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from animals, insulin-like proteins are also known to exist in the Fungi and Protista kingdoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Insulin Index can be more useful than either the Glycemic Index or the Glycemic Load because certain foods (e.g., lean meats and proteins) cause an insulin response despite there being no carbohydrates present, and some foods cause a disproportionate insulin response relative to their carbohydrate load. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Insulin from animal sources differs somewhat in effectiveness (in carbohydrate metabolism effects) from human insulin because of these variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several regulatory sequences in the promoter region of the human insulin gene bind to transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • When injected subcutaneously, it appears in the blood earlier than human insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though purity has improved steadily since the 1920s ultimately reaching purity of 99% by the mid-1970s thanks to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, minor allergic reactions still occur occasionally, although the same types of allergic reactions have also been known to occur in response to synthetic "human" insulin varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The host cells are then allowed to grow and reproduce normally, and due to the inserted human DNA, they produce a synthetic version of human insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the development of synthesized human insulin, patients were dependent on animal insulin which was more costly, less accessible, and caused infections in some patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin regular human (OTC) - Humulin R, Novolin R". Archived from the original on 16 December 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are human and pig insulin based versions. (wikipedia.org)
  • syringes
  • Insulin pens offer several significant advantages over insulin syringes: ease of handling, accuracy, and they are more discreet to use and easier to transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • The insulin concentration in blood increases after meals and gradually returns to basal levels during the next 1-2 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Insulin Index of a food represents how much it elevates the concentration of insulin in the blood during the two-hour period after the food is ingested. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the chart below, glycemic and insulin scores show the increase in the blood concentration of each. (wikipedia.org)
  • Banting
  • Insulin was first used as a medication in Canada by Charles Best and Frederick Banting in 1922. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hans Christian Hagedorn (1888-1971) and August Krogh (1874-1949) obtained the rights for insulin from Banting and Best in Toronto, Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin was introduced by Banting and Best from the University of Toronto in 1921 as an injectable agent. (wikipedia.org)