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  • Calyces
  • Plant odorant and pheromone information conveyed in parallel pathways into the antennal lobe, are kept separated in the calyces of the mushroom bodies (involved in learning), and the lateral protocerebrum (an integration area) indicating a functional organization according to behavioral relevance. (springer.com)
  • evolutionary
  • The evolution of nervous systems and brains reveals two major evolutionary trends, one leading to ring-shaped nerve systems in cnidarians and ctenophorans, the other as the main track leading to a bilaterally organized nervous system with a circumesophageal ganglion and ventral cords. (springer.com)
  • predators
  • Allmann S, Baldwin IT (2010) Insects betray themselves in nature to predators by rapid isomerization of green leaf volatiles. (springer.com)
  • pathways
  • Furthermore, information of the same origin is partially sent via parallel pathways to different and sometimes into the same brain areas. (jove.com)
  • nerve
  • Our data show that arthropsin is expressed in the central nervous system of E. rowelli , including the brain and the ventral nerve cords, but not in the eyes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Shown here are the characteristic orthogonal networks of nerve fibers from the mushroom body of a mantis shrimp (top) and a cockroach (bottom). (phys.org)
  • Kenyon
  • They have been defined anatomically as a discrete neuropil composed of an abundance of parallel fibers originating from densely packed cell bodies, called globuli cells or Kenyon cells ( Schürmann F-W, 1973 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • accomplish
  • To accomplish these tasks, the brain must disregard much of the information made available by the senses, extracting only what is relevant for the animal's needs. (frontiersin.org)
  • different
  • Development of automatised algorithms for the extraction of features from different brain image modalities (e.g. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In addition to circulating in the blood as immune sentinels, macrophages play specialized roles in different organs around the body. (the-scientist.com)
  • role
  • Since the role of arthropsin and its distribution within the body are unknown, we immunolocalized this protein in a representative of Onychophora - Euperipatoides rowelli - an ecdysozoan taxon which is regarded as one of the closest relatives of Arthropoda. (frontiersin.org)
  • Until recently, tyramine was considered to be the precursor of octopamine only, without playing any other major role in insects. (frontiersin.org)
  • genes
  • Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that some genes are preferentially active in one part of the brain or body, while other genes are particular active in another location. (dnalc.org)
  • Researchers map learning-induced chromatin alterations in mouse brain cells, and find that many affect autism-associated genes. (the-scientist.com)
  • authors
  • It may therefore not be a coincidence that precisely those taxa have retained mushroom bodies because "one proposed driver of the evolution of large mushroom bodies is the requirement to recall the exact locations and properties of places from which to obtain food," as the authors write. (phys.org)
  • The study's authors acknowledge that while intriguing, their findings provide no definitive conclusion to exactly how and when mushroom bodies evolved. (phys.org)
  • research
  • My research is in bioelectronics, specifically the application of organic electronic materials to interfacing with the brain, aiming to understand how the brain works and to develop new tools for the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. (cam.ac.uk)
  • I work part-time in the Division of Anaesthesia as a Research Assistant conducting the follow-up studies with patients recovering from traumatic brain injury (including MRI scanning and neuropsychological testing). (cam.ac.uk)
  • Learning
  • A map of the entire array of cell types and potential projections in the mushroom body of the fruit fly brain provides insights into the circuitry that supports learning of stimulus-reward and stimulus-punishment associations. (elifesciences.org)
  • size
  • We attribute longevity of tyrannosaurs to late sexual maturity, large body size, and rapid growth rate, which would be favorable for longevity. (fightaging.org)