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  • infection
  • The anti-HVR1 antiserum induced protection against homologous HCV infection in chimpanzees, but not against the emergence of neutralization escape mutants that were found to be already present in the complex viral quasispecies of the inoculum. (pnas.org)
  • We utilized the circumoval precipitin (COP) test, Ouchterlony immunodiffusion, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of human infection with Schistosoma mansoni or S. haematobium , or with both species of schistosome. (ajtmh.org)
  • Only the COP test correctly identified all of those with schistosome infection, although differentiation as to schistosome species was impossible. (ajtmh.org)
  • C57BL/6J mice (sIgM −/− ) that were deficient in the production of secreted IgM but capable of expressing surface IgM and secreting other immunoglobulin isotypes were vulnerable to lethal infection, even after inoculation with low doses of WNV. (rupress.org)
  • Immune IgG are speculated to protect against WNV infection by direct neutralization of receptor binding, through Fc-receptor-dependent viral clearance, by complement-mediated lysis of virus or infected cells, and by antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. (rupress.org)
  • mice
  • All mice that received the booster developed antibodies that could cross-neutralize all the JCV variants tested, suggesting that so-called "neutralizing blind spots" can be closed through prime-boost vaccination. (cancer.gov)
  • conventional
  • Of 37 conventional guinea pigs inoculated as controls for the germfree series, 34 developed acute ulcerative amebiasis, and the other three animals harbored the ameba when sacrificed on the 21st post-inoculation day. (ajtmh.org)
  • vaccine
  • The identification of the neutralization domains of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is essential for the development of an effective vaccine. (pnas.org)
  • However, the identification of the most variable region of HCV as a critical neutralization domain poses a major challenge for the development of a broadly reactive vaccine against HCV. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies have stressed the need of reinforcing serological tests as an auxiliary tool to evaluate the potency of commercial vaccines and monitor vaccine-driven evolution of emerging variants and consequent choice of seed viruses [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Accordingly, there is need for reliable and high-throughput tests to determine the immunogenicity of vaccine candidates in both animal models and large-scale clinical trials. (biomedcentral.com)
  • results
  • Interpretation of the results obtained with serologic tests is discussed in some detail, principally with reference to the dye-test and complement-fixation test. (ajtmh.org)
  • The results indicated that amino acid substitution at residue 144 significantly affected neutralization activity, acting as an escape mutation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We aimed to systematically study the effect of CPC treatment and decontamination time on culture results compared to non-CPC samples, tested if the use of Difco neutralization buffer with CPC treated samples before inoculation can further increase the culture yield, and investigated the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF in CPC treated samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The HI tests indicated almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.86) when results were dichotomised (titre ≥ 4 log2), and substantial agreement (weighted kappa = 0.80) for log titres. (beds.ac.uk)
  • rabbit
  • Neutralization of HCV in vitro was attempted with a rabbit hyperimmune serum raised against a homologous synthetic peptide derived from the HVR1 of the E2 protein, and the residual infectivity was evaluated by inoculation of HCV-seronegative chimpanzees. (pnas.org)
  • To investigate whether the HVR1 of the E2 protein is a critical neutralization domain, in vitro neutralization of a pedigreed, in vivo -titrated HCV strain (H77) was attempted with a rabbit hyperimmune serum raised against a homologous synthetic HVR1 peptide. (pnas.org)
  • The section on serologic methods deals with the rabbit neutralization test, complement-fixation test, Sabin-Feldman dye-test and the toxoplasmin skin test. (ajtmh.org)
  • methods
  • This long case definition aims to describe the methods presently available for screening specimens and confirming the identity of STEC and to provide guidance for laboratories, which might wish to introduce tests for STEC. (health.gov.au)
  • Since March 2006 to February 2007, 86 specimens from Sistan & Balouchestan,63 specimens from Tehran and 48 samples from Fars sewage disposal systems and surface water were collected by Grab Sample method and tested for enteroviruses directly by using two concentration methods: Pellet and Two-phase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • clinical
  • This is a laborious and time consuming procedure, while operator bias makes it less suitable for clinical trials that involve testing large numbers of samples in multiple centres. (biomedcentral.com)
  • samples
  • Furthermore, 50 samples were stored for 7, 14 and 21 days, and 100 CPC-pretreated samples tested by Xpert MTB/RIF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though CPC can preserve sample viability and reduce contamination, which makes it an effective reagent for storage of sputum samples at ambient temperature for several days [ 6 , 8 ], rigorous evaluation of the effect of CPC treatment on culture and molecular test performance has been limited in sub-Saharan Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. difficile toxins were detected during the testing period in some infant stool samples, but the infant never had diarrhea. (beds.ac.uk)